The Mind Science Foundation
117 West El Prado Drive
San Antonio, TX, 78212, USA
Tel: (210) 821-6094
Harald Atmanspacher, PhD
The mission of the department is the analysis and interpretation of empirical results within mind-matter research. This includes (1) developing theoretical models related to the body of knowledge of the relevant scientific disciplines; and (2) developing new methods for data analysis and proposing new lines of experimentation. The main research areas are statistics and data analysis, theoretical physics, cognitive science and neuroscience, and philosophy of science.
H. Atmanspacher. Contextual emergence from physics to cognitive neuroscience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 14(1-2), 18-36 (2007).
G. Franck and H. Atmanspacher. A proposed relation between intensity of presence and duration of nowness. Recasting Reality. Wolfgang Pauli's Philosophical Ideas and Contemporary Science, ed. by H. Atmanspacher and H. Primas, Springer, Berlin, in press.
C. Allefeld, H. Atmanspacher, and C. Wackermann Mental states as macrostates emerging from EEG Dynamics. Chaos, in press.
H. Atmanspacher, M. Bach, T. Filk, J. Kornmeier, and H. Römer. (2008) Cognitive time scales in a Necker-Zeno model for bistable perception.Open Cybernetics and Systemics Journal 2, 234-251.
Zen Buddhist meditation; psychophysiology of selfless states of consciousness; the creative process in biomedical research.
Zen and the Brain, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998.
Consciousness Evolves When the Self Dissolves. J. Consciousness Studies, 7:(11-12)209-230, 2000.
Chase, Chance, and Creativity; The Lucky Art of Novelty. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003.
Zen-Brain Reflections. Reviewing Recent Developments in Meditation and States of Consciousness. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2006.
Selfless Insight-Wisdom; A Thalamic Gateway, in: Measuring the Immeasurable; the Scientific Basis of Spirituality, Sounds true, Louisville, CO., 2008, pp. 211-230.
Selfless Insight. Zen and the Meditative Transformations of Consciousness. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2009.
The Thalamic Gateway: How The Meditative Training of Consciousness Evolves Toward Selfless States of Consciousness, in: B. Bruya (Ed.) Effortless Attention: A New Perspective in the Cognitive Science of Attention and Action. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2010, in press.
Bernard Baars, PhD
Dr. Baars is interested in the psychology and brain basis of conscious experience. He also seeks to understand the ethical implications of consciousness for human and animal welfare as well as the nature of consciousness in animals. His other research interests includes: consciousness in the history of psychology, the scientific problem of volition, psychodynamics, conscious aspects of emotion and bioethics.
Baars, B. J., Banks, W. P., & Newman, J. B. (2003). Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Baars, B.J. (2002). The conscious access hypothesis: Origins and recent evidence. Trends in Cognitive Science.
Bernard Baars: A cognitive theory of consciousness, NY: Cambridge University Press (1988).
Talis Bachmann, PhD
Dr. Bachmann’s research interests include: microgenesis of conscious representation, visual masking, flash-lag effect, visual spatial attention, visual form and face perception, perceptual latency priming, attentional blink and perception of objects in stream; the main methods used include tachistoscopic experiments programmed for PC, spatial quantization of visual images, algorithmic and quantitative modeling, and dichoptic presentation. He has developed the perceptual retouch theory of conscious perception microgenesis, based on the notion of interaction between specific cortical mechanisms of perceptual content representation and non-specific thalamic mechanisms of modulation.
Bachmann, T. (2006). Microgenesis of perception: conceptual, psychophysical, and neurobiological aspects. In H. Ögmen, & B.G. Breitmeyer (Eds.), The first half second: The microgenesis and temporal dynamics of unconscious and conscious visual processes. (pp. 11-33). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Bachmann T. (2004). Inaptitude of the signal detection theory, useful vexation from the microgenetic view, and inevitability of neurobiological signatures in understanding perceptual (un)awareness. Consciousness and Cognition,13, 101-6.
Rajendra Badgiayan, MD
Dr. Badgaiyan has been using neuroimaging techniques to study nonconscious mind processes, particularly, nonconscious memory. After conducting a series of experiments, his lab has been able to localize a cortical area that is critically associated with retrieval of nonconsciously encoded information. This area (V3A), located at the occipito-temporal junction, is classically associated with visual information processing. His research has for the first time demonstrated that V3A is critical for cognitive processing and that it processes information across different sensory modalities. Another important finding that came out of his studies was the demonstration that nonconscious stimuli elicit well-processed cognitive responses even though they are not consciously perceived. Dr. Badgaiyan is currently working on a PET technique that allows mapping of the sitesof a neurotransmitter release in specified brain areas in human volunteers while they perform a cognitive or behavioral task associated with conscious action.
Badgaiyan, R.D. (2006). Cortical activation elicited by unrecognized stimuli. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2, 17.
Badgaiyan, R.D. (2005). Conscious awareness and the brain processing. Elements, 3, 8-12.
Badgaiyan R.D., (in press). Theory of Mind and Schizophrenia, Cognition and Consciousness.
Andrew Bailey, PhD
Dr. Bailey is a philosopher of mind with interests in the metaphysics and epistemology of phenomenal consciousness, and in embodied cognition.
Bailey, A. "Qualia and the Argument from Illusion." Acta Analytica. Forthcoming 2007.
Bailey, A. "Representation and a Science of Consciousness." Journal of Consciousness Studies 14, Nos. 1-2 (2007): 62-76.
Bailey, A. "Zombies, Epiphenomenalism and Physicalist Theories of Consciousness." Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36 (2006): 481-510.
Mahzarin Banaji, PhD
Dr. Banaji studies human thinking and feeling as it unfolds in the social context. Her focus is primarily on mental systems that operate in implicit or unconscious mode. In particular, she is interested in the unconscious nature of assessments of self and other humans that reflect feelings and knowledge.Specifically, her research explores how people think and feel about the social world, with a focus on beliefs (stereotypes) about and preferences (attitudes) for social groups. It includes both experimental and correlational work, using primarily behavioral, but also brain measurements. With Anthony Greenwald and Brian Nosek, she maintains an educational website that has accumulated over 3 million completed tasks measuring automatic attitudes and beliefs involving self, other individuals, and social groups. It can be reached at www.implicit.harvard.edu.
Cunningham, W., Johnson, M., Raye, C., Gatenby, J., Gore, J., & Banaji, M. (2004). Separable Neural Components in the Processing of Black and White Faces. Psychological Science, 15, 806-813.
Mitchell, J., Macrae, C., & Banaji, M. (2005). Forming impressions of people versus inanimate objects: Social-cognitive processing in the medial prefrontal cortex. NeuroImage, 26, 251-25.
Carney, D., Krieger, N., Banaji, M. R. (in press). Self-Discrimination is detected on implicit but not explicit measures. Self and Identity.
Ames, D. L., Jenkins, A. C., Banaji, M. R., & Mitchell, J. P. (2008). Taking another’s perspective increases self-referential neural processing. Psychological Science, 19, 642-644.
Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding the mind. In In J. Brockman (Ed.), What will change everything? New York: Harper Collins.
Nosek, B. A. & Banaji, M. R. (in press). Implicit Attitude. In P. Wilken, T. Bayne, & A. Cleeremans (Eds.), Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
William Banks, PhD
Dr. Banks was Editor-in-Chief of the Elsevier journal Consciousness and Cognition. His research was on the Libet "free will" paradigm and on mechanisms that produce our ongoing conscious perceptual representation of the world. His previous work had been on psychophysics, Gestalt factors in perception, and representations of magnitude of familiar objects in memory.
Banks, W. & Isham, E. (in press). Do we really know what we are doing? Implications of reported time of decision for theories of volition. In Sinott-Armstrong, W. and Nadel, L. (Eds.) Conscious Will and Responsibility: A Tribute to Benjamin Libet, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Pockett, S., Banks, W.P., & Gallagher, S. (2006) Does Consciousness Cause Behavior? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Banks, W. P. (2006; 2009) Does Consciousness Cause Misbehavior?. In Pockett, S., Banks, W.P., & Gallagher, S. (Eds.) Does Consciousness Cause Behavior? Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Banks, W. P. & Pockett, S. (2007) Libet’s Work on the Neuroscience of Free Will. The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Cambridge, England: lackwell.
Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Banks, W. P. & Isham, E. (2009) We infer rather than perceive the moment we decided to act. Psychological Science, Vol 20(1). pp. 17-21
Banks, W. P. Editor-in-Chief, Elsevier Encyclopedia of Consciousness. April, 2009.
Banks, W.P., and Karam, S. J. (1996). Medico-Psychological study of a memory disorder (Translation of S.S. Korsakoff (1889) Etude medico-psychologique sur une forme des malalies de la memorie. Revue Philosophique, 28 501-530) Consciousness and Cognition, 5, 2-21.
John Bargh, PhD
Dr. Bargh's research focuses on nonconscious (automatic influences) on psychological and behavioral processes. His studies address the issue of free will, and how much of it we as individuals really have. He is interested in the extent to which all social psychological phenomena -- attitudes and evaluations, emotions, impressions, motivations, social behavior -- occur nonconsciously and automatically. Currently, his research is actively exploring how social goals such as to cooperate, achieve, become friends, and so on, are triggered and operate without the person's awareness. A related question is how these various sources of nonconscious influence interact with each other, and how much of our 'real life' experience is governed by them. By discovering domains of social life in which conscious, deliberate processes are not necessary, we can shed more light the true purpose of consciousness.Bargh, J. A. (2006). "What have we been priming all these years? On the development, mechanisms, and ecology of nonconscious social behavior." European Journal of Social Psychology.
Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). "The unbearable automaticity of being." American Psychologist, 54, 462-479.
Williams, L. E., Huang, J. Y., & Bargh, J. A. (in press). The scaffolded mind: Higher mental processes are grounded in early experience of the physical world. European Journal of Social Psychology
Smith, P. K., & Bargh, J. A. (2008). Nonconscious effects of power on basic approach and avoidance tendencies. Social Cognition, 26, 1-24
Bargh, J. A., & Morsella, E. (in press). Unconscious behavioral guidance systems. In C. Agnew et al., Then a miracle occurs: Focusing on behavior in social psychological theory and research. New York: Oxford University Press
Tim Bayne, PhD
Tim Bayne is a major philosopher in the theory of mind. Dr. Bayne’s current projects include writing a book on the unity of consciousness, editing the Oxford Companion to Consciousness (with Axel Cleeremans & Patrick Wilken), and editing a volume on delusions and self-deception (with Jordi Fernandez). Together with Neil Levy(CAPPE, Melbourne) he has an ARC grant to investigate the implications of recent work in cognitive science for accounts of moral responsibility. He is also currently conduct research with Elisabeth Pacherie on delusions and with Avery Kolers on ethical issues related to procreation. In addition, he is the editor of PSYCHE, and on the organizing committee of the Association for the Scientific Study of Consciousness
Bayne, T. & Pacherie, E. (2005). In Defence of the Doxastic Conception of DelusionsMind and Language, 20/2: 163-88.
Bayne, T. (2004). Closing the Gap? Some Questions for Neurophenomenology Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences, 3/4: 349-64.
Bayne, T. 2008. The Unity of Consciousness and the Split-Brain Syndrome, The Journal of Philosophy, 105(6), 277-300.
Bayne, T. 2007 Conscious States and Concious Creatures: Explanation in thescientific study of consciousness. Philosophical Perspectives (21): Philosophy of Mind (ed. J.Hawthorne).
Bayne, T. Forthcoming. The Unity of Consciousness.Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Heather Berlin, PhD, MPH
Dr. Berlin's research aims to discover and further delineate brain-behavior relationships that can contribute to the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. She is interested in the neural basis of impulsivity, compulsivity, emotionality, and personality; the functions of the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (including learning and alteration of stimulus-reinforcement associations; emotional processing; decision-making; time perception; and working memory); and the effects of psychopharmacological treatments on cognition and personality. She is also investigating perceptual rivalry in psychiatric patients.
Berlin HA, Rolls ET, Iversen SD (2005). Borderline personality disorder, impulsivity, and the orbitofrontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(12):2360-73.
Berlin HA, Rolls ET, Kischka U (2004). Impulsivity, time perception, emotion, and reinforcement sensitivity in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Brain, 127: 1108-1126.
Berlin HA (2011). The neural basis of the dynamic unconscious. Neuropsychoanalysis, 13(1):5-31.
Susan Blackmore, PhD
Sue Blackmore is a freelance writer, lecturer and broadcaster, and a Visiting Lecturer at the University of the West of England, Bristol. She has a degree in psychology and physiology from OxfordUniversity and a PhD in parapsychology from the University of Surrey. Her research interests include memes, evolutionary theory, consciousness, and meditation.
Blackmore, S. (2005). Conversations on Consciousness, Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Blackmore, S. (2003). Consciousness: An Introduction, London, Hodder & Stoughton.
Blackmore, S. 2008 Memes shape brains shape memes. Commentary on Christiansen and Chater. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 31, 513
Blackmore, S.J. (2003) Consciousness in Meme Machines. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10:4-5, 19-30
James Blascovich, PhD
Dr. Blascovich’s two major research interests are social motivation and social influence within technologically mediated environments. Relevant to the former, he has developed a biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat. He has validated patterns of cardiovascular responses as markers of challenge and threat motivation using them along with subjective and behavioral measures in empirical investigations guided by his theoretical model. Dr. Blascovich has applied his model to various social phenomena including intraindividual processes such as attitudes and dispositions as well as interindividual processes such as stigma, stereotypes, social comparison, and social facilitation. He uses immersive virtual environment technology to empirically investigate social influence processes within virtual environments including conformity, non-verbal communication, collaborative decision-making and leadership. This work is guided by his formal model of social influence within immersive virtual environments. He has recently combined his areas of research, focusing on distinguishing conscious, unconscious, and metaconscious processes using immersive virtual environment technology and neurophysiological assessments.
Blascovich, J. & Bailenson (2011). Infinite Reality: Avatars, Eternal Life, New Worlds and The Dawn of the Virtual Revoultion. New York: Harper-Collins: Morrow.
Blascovich, J., Mendes, W., & Tomaka, J. (2003). The robust nature of the biopsychosocial model challenge and threat: A reply to Wright and Kirby. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 7, 234-243
Blascovich, J., Loomis, J., Beall, A., Swinth, K., Hoyt, C., & Bailenson, J. (2002). Immersive virtual environment technology as a research tool for social psychology. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 103-125.
Ned Block, PhD
Ned Block is a philosopher of mind who has made important contributions to matters of consciousness and cognitive science. Dr. Block is famous for presenting an argument against the Turing Test as a test of intelligence in a paper entitled Psychologism and Behaviourism by using a thought experiment in which he suggests the creation of a computer which has come to be known as Blockhead. Block also tried to develop a counterexample to functionalism. There might exist a system which has the same functional states as a human but no consciousness.
Block, N. (2005). Two neural correlates of consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol 9, pp. 46-52.
Hal Blumenfeld, MD, PhD
Dr. Hal Blumenfeld’s guiding research interest is in exploring the relationship between brain activity and conscious thought. He has chosen epilepsy as a model system for investigating consciousness, because in epilepsy there is a spectrum in the levels of consciousness, which may be explained in terms of different states of brain activity. Ongoing studies in his laboratory include experiments to explore electrophysiologic and network mechanisms common to seizures and other states of impaired consciousness. In particular, he investigates the role of subcortical structures such as the thalamus and brainstem in the propagation and behavioral manifestations of seizures. Current projects include cellular neurophysiology experiments using brain slices, in vivo electrophysiology and fMRI recordings from animal models of epilepsy, as well as SPECT and fMRI imaging of cortical and subcortical seizure foci in humans.
Blumenfeld H, McNally K, Vanderhill S, Paige A, Chung R, Davis K, Norden A, Stokking R, Studholme C, Novotny E, Zubal I, Spencer S. (2004). Positive and negative network correlations in temporal lobe epilepsy. Cerebral Cortex, 14, 892-902.
Blumenfeld H, & Taylor, J. (2003). Why do seizures cause loss of consciousness? The Neuroscientist,9, 301-10.
Blumenfeld H (2005) Consciousness and epilepsy: why are patients with absence seizures absent?, Progress in brain research, 150, 271-86
Joseph Bogen, MD
Bogen was part of a research team at Caltech with Sperry and Gordon which conducted the first split brain study. His early surgical interventions to control epilepsy laid the foundation for the development of modern ideas about the unique identities of the right and left brains. Bogen argued that consciousness is subjective, and that looking for consciousness is like looking for the wind, you can only see its effects. Bogen suggested that scientists look for a center (a nucleus) that has inward and outward connectivity as a site that produces subjectivity as consciousness. At the time of his death, Bogen had been researching the site in the brain where consciousness is located and was preparing a book about his findings.
Bogen, J. (1997). Some neurophysiologic aspects of consciousness. Seminars in Neurology, 17, 95-103.
Bogen, J. (1997). An example of access consciousness without phenomenal consciousness? Behavioral Brain Sciences, 20, 144.
Alyssa Brewer, PhD
A.A. Brewer, J. Liu, A.R. Wade, B.A. Wandell. Visual field maps and stimulus selectivity in human ventral occipital cortex. (2005). Nature Neuroscience. 8(8), 1102-9.
I. Fine, A.R. Wade, A.A. Brewer, M.G. May, D.F. Goodman, G.M. Boynton, B.A. Wandell, D.I. MacLeod. Long-term deprivation affects visual perception and cortex. (2003). Nature Neuroscience. 6(9), 915-916.
B.A. Wandell, S.O. Dumoulin, A.A. Brewer. Visual Field Maps in Human Cortex. (2007). Neuron. 56(2):366-83.
Bruce Bridgeman, PhD
Bridgeman, B. (2003). Psychology and Evolution: The Origins of Mind. Thousand Oaks, Ca.: Sage Publications.
Bridgeman, B. (2002). The grand illusion and petit illusions; Interactions of perception and sensory coding. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9, 29-34
Bridgeman, B. (2006) Contributions of lateral inhibition to object substitution masking and attention. Vision Research, 46, 4075-4082.
Robert Briscoe, PhD
Robert Eamon Briscoe is a philosopher of mind at Ohio University. His research focuses on the philosophy and cognitive science of visual perception with a special emphasis on the relationship between embodied visuomotor action and visual awareness of space
Briscoe RE. (2008) "Vision, action and make-perceive." Mind and Language. 23: 457-97.
Grush, Rick and Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). “Action-based Theories of Perception,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Briscoe, Robert (2011). “Mental Imagery and the Varieties of Amodal Perception,” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 92: 153–173
Briscoe, Robert (2011). “The Elusive Experience of Agency,” Topics in Cognitive Science 3: 262–267
Briscoe, Robert (2010). “Perceiving the Present: Systematization of Illusions or Illusion of Systematization?,” Cognitive Science 34: 1530–1542
Briscoe, Robert (2009). “Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79: 423-460
Briscoe, Robert (2008). “Vision, Action, and Make-Perceive,” Mind and Language 23: 457-497
Briscoe, Robert (2008). “Another Look at the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis,” Journal of Consciousness Studies 15: 35-62
"Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (forthcoming 2008).
Andrew Brook, D Phil
Brook, A. (2004). Kant, cognitive science, and contemporary neoKantianism. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11, no. 10-11. pp. 1-25.
Brook, A., (with Paul Raymont). A self-representational theory of consciousness. Psyche, the online journal of consciousness studies
Brook, A., (with Paul Raymont). Unity of consciousness. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Brook, A and Stainton, R. (2001). Knowledge and mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press/A Bradford Book.
Jean Burns, PhD
Jean Burns is a physicist who is interested in consciousness and free will and their relationship to presently known physical laws. She has reviewed various proposals to explain the action of free will, where free will is viewed as a physical effect produced by non-physical means, and has shown that in each case a radical extension to presently known physical laws would be involved. She also has proposed that free will acts through the ordering of quantum fluctuations and has shown that through such a mechanism the direction of travel of a molecule at ordinary pressure and temperature can be ordered to any other direction in one mean free path. She has shown that if 80 water molecules traveling in the intercellular medium in the brain were ordered in their direction of travel, their impact would be sufficient to break a chemical bond, and the impact of a few thousand such molecules could open ion gates and initiate an action potential.
Burns, J. E. (2006). The arrow of time and the action of the mind at the molecular level, in D.P. Sheehan (ed.), Frontiers of Time: Retrocausation – Experiment and Theory (Melville, NY: AIP Conference Proceedings), pp. 75-88. http://www.mindspring.com/~l.o.v.e.r/Burns-05.pdf
Burns, J. E. (1999). Volition and physical laws. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6(10), pp. 27-47.http://www.theassc.org/files/assc/VOLITION-assc.pdf
William Calvin, PhD
Calvin, W. H. (1998). "Competing for consciousness: A Darwinian mechanism at an appropriate level of explanation." Journal of Consciousness Studies. 5(4):389-404.
Calvin, William. A Brief History of the Mind: From Apes to Intellect and Beyond. Oxford University Press, 2004.
David Chalmers, PhD
Chalmers, D.J. (1996). The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory. Oxford University Press.
Chalmers, D.J.(1995). Facing Up to the Problem of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 2, 200-19.
Chalmers, D. Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings (Oxford, 2002)
Patricia Churchland, PhD
Grush R. and Churchland, P. S.. "Gaps in Penrose's Toiling", Journal of Consciousness Studies, 1995.
Churchland, P.S. "The Hornswoggle Problem", Journal of Consciousness Studies, 1997.
(2006) The Big Questions: Do we have free will?. New Scientist 2578, (39770) 42-45.
(2005) A neurophilosophical slant on consciousness research. Progress in Brain Research 149 285-293.
Alex Cleeremans, PhD
Dr. Cleeremans is focused on the relationships between learning and consciousness. While much that we learn is available for conscious inspection, many elementary learning mechanisms are implicit. The extent to which we can learn without awareness remains a highly controversial issue in different domains from subliminal priming to implicit learning and memory, and associative conditioning to skill acquisition. Cleeremans suggests that traditional dichotomies (between implicit and explicit learning; between conscious and unconscious information processing) should be replaced by a graded characterization of consciousness. From this perspective, while consciousness is often associated with learning, it is neither a prerequisite for, nor a necessary consequence of cognitive change. To explore these issues, Cleeremans's lab uses a combination of behavioural, computational modeling, and imaging methods.
Cleeremans, A. (2005). Computational correlates of consciousness. Progress in Brain Research, 150, 81-98.
Cleeremans, A. (Ed.) (2003). The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. Oxford University Press.
Allan Combs, PhD
Allan Combs is a consciousness researcher, neuropsychologist, and systems theorist. He holds appointments at The California Institute of Integral Studies and The Graduate Institute of Connecticut where he is Director of the MA program in Conscious Evolution. He is author of over 200 articles, chapters, and books on consciousness and the brain including the following:
Combs, A. & Goerner, S. (1998) Consciousness as a Self-Organizing Process: An Ecological Perspective: an attempt to integrate ideas about consciousness and the physical world. Biosystems,46, 123-127.
Combs, A. (1997) Commentary on Baars' In the theatre of consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 4,314-316.
Combs, A. (2002). The Radiance of being: Understanding the grand integral vision; Living the integral life. St Paul, MN: Paragon House.
Combs, A. (2009). Consciousness explained better: Towards an integral understanding of the multifaceted nature of consciousness. St Paul, MN: Paragon House.
Combs, A. (Ed.). (1910). Special issue of Journal of Consciousness Studies: A Victorian’s Guide to Consciousness. 17 (11-2).
Combs, A., Pfaffenberger, A., & Marko, P. (Eds.). (2011). The postconventional personality: Empirical perspectives on higher development. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Laszlo, E., & Combs, A. (2011). Dreamer of the Earth: The Relevance of Thomas Berry, prophetic visionary (1914-2009). Selected essays. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions.
Process, Structure, and Form: An Evolutionary Transpersonal Psychology of Consciousness, with Stanley Krippner. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 2003, 22, pp.47-60.
Consciousness: Chaotic and Strangely Attractive. My basic theory of consciousness. In Combs, A., Germine, M, & Goertzel, B. (2002; Eds.). Mind in Time: The Dynamics of Thought, Reality, and Consciousness. Hampton, Cresskill, NJ.
Norman Cook, PhD
Cook, N.D. (2008) The neuron-level phenomena underlying cognition and consciousness: Synaptic activity and the action potential. Neuroscience, Vol. 153/3, pp. 556-570.
Cook, N.D. (2002). Tone of Voice and Mind: The connections between intonation, emotion, cognition and consciousness, John Benjamins, Amsterdam
Francis Crick, PhD
After co-discovering of the structure of the DNA molecule, Crick taught himself neuroanatomy and studied many other areas of neuroscience research. It took him several years to disengage from molecular biology, but eventually, in the 1980s Crick was able to devote his full attention to his other interest, consciousness. Upon taking up work in theoretical neuroscience, Crick was struck by several problems in the field. There were many isolated subdisciplines within neuroscience and little contact between researchers, and consciousness was viewed as a taboo subject by many neurobiologists. He made it a goal to change this rift in science, and is known as one of the founding fathers in the study of consciousness.
Crick F., & Koch, C. (1998). Consciousness and Neuroscience. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 97-107.
Crick F., & Koch, C. (1995). Why neuroscience may be able to explain consciousness. Scientific American, 273, 84-85.
Antonio Damasio, MD, PhD
Antonio Damasio is an internationally recognized leader in neuroscience. His research has helped to elucidate the neural basis for the emotions and has shown that emotions play a central role in social cognition and decision-making. His work has also had a major influence on current understanding of the neural systems, which underlie memory, language and consciousness. Damasio is a University Professor, Professor of Neuroscience, and directs the Brain and Creativity Institute.
Parvizi J, Van Hoesen G, Buckwalter J, Damasio A. (2006). Neural connections of the posteromedial cortex in the macaque: Implications for the understanding of the neural basis of consciousness. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, 103, 1563-1568.
Damasio A, Meyer K: Consciousness: An Overview of the Phenomenon and of its Possible Neural Basis, in The Neurology of Consciousness, Steven Laureys and Guilo Tononi (eds) Elsevier, pp 3 – 14, 2008
Damasio A: Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the Conscious Brain. Pantheon, 2010
Meyer Kaspar, Damasio A. Convergence and divergence in a neural architecture for recognition and memory, Trends in Neurosciences vol. 32, no. 7, 376-382, 2009
Meyer K, Kaplan J.T., Essex R, Webber C, Damasio H, Damasio A, Predicting visual stimuli based on activity in auditory cortices. Nature Neuroscience vol 13, 6, 667-668, 2010
K Meyer, JT Kaplan, R Essex, H Damasio, A Damasio. Seeing touch is correlated with content-specific activity in primary sensory cortex. Cerebral Cortex, published online 17 February 2011
Damasio, A. (1998). Investigating the biology of consciousness. Transactions of the Royal Society, 353,1879-1882.
Damasio A, Meyer K: Behind the looking-glass. Nature, 454: 167-168, 2008.
Rudrauf D, David O, Lachaux JP, Kovach C, Martinerie J, Renault B, Damasio A: Rapid Interactions between the Ventral Visual Stream and Emotion-Related Structures Rely on a Two-Pathway Architecture. Journal of Neuroscience, 28 (11): 2793-2803. 2008.
Richard Davidson, PhD
Dalton KM, Nacewicz BM, Johnstone T, Schaefer HS, Gernsbacher MA, Goldsmith HH, Alexander AL, Davidson RJ. (2005). "Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism." Nature Neuroscience. 8, 519-526
Lutz A, Greischar LL, Rawlings NB, Ricard M, Davidson RJ. (2004). "Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 101:16369-73
Light, S. N., Coan, J. A., Zahn-Waxler, C., Frye, C., Goldsmith, H. H., & Davidson, R. J. (in press). Empathy is associated with dynamic change in prefrontal brain electrical activity during positive emotion in children. Child Development.
Slagter, H. A., Lutz, A., Greischar, L. L., Nieuwenhuis, S., & Davidson, R. J. (in press). Theta phase synchrony and conscious target perception: Impact of intensive mental training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.
Stanislas Dehaene, PhD
Stanislas Dehaene performed the first brain-imaging studies of subliminal processing of masked words and digits (Nature, 1998; Nature Neuroscience, 2001). He has imaged minimal contrasts between words that gain access to consciousness and words that remain subliminal (Nature Neuroscience, 2005), thus opening a new window into the nature of consciousness and its possible pathologies, e.g. in schizophrenia (PNAS, 2003).
Stanislas Dehaene collaborates with molecular neurobiologist Jean-Pierre Changeux on the development of theoretical models of conscious effortful processing. Those models account for neuropsychological tests associated with the prefrontal cortex and their impairments reproduce the deficits exhibited by frontal patients. Their architecture was synthesized into the proposal of a "neuronal workspace hypothesis" for conscious access (PNAS, 1998, 2003; PLOS, 2005).Dehaene, S., & Changeux, J. (1997). A hierarchical neuronal network for planning behaviour. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 94, 13293-13298.
Dehaene, S., Kerszberg, M., & Changeux, J. (1998). A neuronal model of a global workspace in effortful cognitive tasks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 95, 14529-14534.
Tristan A Bekinschtein, Stanislas Dehaene, Benjamin Rohaut, François Tadel, Laurent Cohen, and Lionel Naccache. Neural signature of the conscious processing of auditory regularities.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 106(5):1672--1677, February 2009.
Raphael Gaillard, Stanislas Dehaene, Claude Adam, Stephane Clemenceau, Dominique Hasboun, Michel Baulac, Laurent Cohen, and and Lionel Naccache. Converging Intracranial Markers of Conscious Access. PLoS Biol, 7(3), 2009.
Stephen Deiss, MS
Mr Deiss concentrates his area of investigation on the conceptual metaphors that underlie and continue to confound consciousness research in the cognitive neurosciences. In particular, he studies the notions of neural mechanisms, neural computation, causality, and the scientific laws that are coupled with a lack of clarity about what defines conscious experience.
Deiss, S. R., “Universal Correlates of Consciousness,” Chapter 7 (pp 137-158) in Mind That Abides: Panpsychism in the new millennium (Advances in Consciousness Research series), David Skrbina (ed.), John Benjamins, 2009, ISBN-10: 9027252114.
Arnaurd Delorme, PhD
Dr. Arnaud Delmore is currently a Principal Investigator at the CNRS in France and a visiting faculty at the University of California San Diego. He is presently interested in studying transfer of information between brain areas during meditation using Independent Component Analysis applied to EEG recordings. Arnaud is also the main author of the EEGLAB software for EEG analysis.
Delorme, A., Rousselet, G., Mace, M., & Fabre-Thorpe M. (2004) Interaction of Bottom-up and Top-down processing in the fast visual analysis of natural scenes. Cognitive Brain Research, 19, 103-113.
Braboszcz, C. and Delorme, A. (2011) Lost in thoughts: neural markers of low alertness during mind wandering. Neuroimage, 54(4):3040-7
Braboszcz, C., Hahusseau, S., Delorme, A. (2010) Meditation and Neuroscience: from basic research to clinical practice. In "Integrative Clinical Psychology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Medicine: Perspectives, Practices and Research". Editor: R. Carlstedt. pp 755-778. Springer Publishing.
Cahn, R., Delorme, A., Polish, J. (2009) Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation. Cognitive processing, 11(1):39-56
Delorme, A., Thorpe, S. (2001) Face processing using one spike per neuron: resistance to image degradation. Neural Networks, 14, 795-804
Delorme, A., Westerfield, M., Makeig, S. (2007) Medial prefrontal theta bursts precede rapid motor responses during visual selective attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 27(44):11949-59.
Onton, J., Delorme, A., Makeig, S. (2005) Frontal midline EEG dynamics during working memory. Neuroimage, 27(2), 341-356.
Daniel Dennett, PhD
Dennett, D. (2001). Are we explaining consciousness yet? Cognition,79, 221-237.
Dennett, D. (1997). Kinds of Minds: Towards an Understanding of Consciousness, Basic Books.
An entry in Mind and Consciousness: 5 Questions, Patrick Grim, ed., Automatic Press, 2009, p 25-30.
Derek Denton, MD
Denton, D. The Primordial Emotions: The Dawning of Consciousness. Oxford University Press (2006).
Denton, D., et al. "Water Intake and the Neural Correlates of the Consciousness of Thirst." Seminars in Nephrology. 2006 May; 26(3):249-57.
Arne Dietrich, PhD
Dietrich, A. (2003). "Functional neuroanatomy of altered states of consciousness: The transient hypofrontality hypothesis." Consciousness and Cognition, 12, 231-256.
Dietrich, A., & Kanso, R. (2010). A review of EEG, ERP and neuroimaging studies of creativity and insight. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 822-848
Dietrich, A. (2004). Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the experience of flow. Consciousness and Cognition, 13, 746-761
Dietrich, A., & Sparling, P.B. (2004). Endurance exercise selectively impairs prefrontal dependent cognition. Brain and Cognition, 55, 516-524
Introduction to Consciousness, Palgrave Macmillan, 2007.
Valentin Dragoi, PhD
Gutnisky D and V. Dragoi (2008). Adaptive coding of visual information in neural populations. Nature, 452, 220-224.
Dragoi V. and M. Sur (2006). Image structure at the center of gaze during free viewing. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 737-748.
Sharma, J., Dragoi, V., Tenenbaum, J., Miller, E. K., and Sur M (2003). V1 neurons signal acquisition of an internal representation of stimulus location. Science, 300, 1758-1763.
Dragoi, V., Sharma, J., Miller, E. K., and Sur M (2002). Dynamics of neuronal sensitivity in visual cortex and local feature discrimination. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 883-891.
Fred Dretske, PhD
Dr. Fred Dretske is one of the most influential epistemologists and philosophers of mind of his time. He was awarded the Jean Nicod Prize in 1994. Dretske taught for a number of years at the University of Wisconsin before moving to Stanford University. After retiring from Stanford he moved to Duke University where he is now a research professor of philosophy.
Dretske, F. (2006). Perception without Awareness, in Perceptual Experience, edited by Tamar Gendler and John Hawthorne, Oxford University Press.
Dretske, F. (2004). Change Blindness. Philosophical Studies, 120, 1-18.
David Eagleman, PhD
The long range goal of Dr. Eagleman’s lab is to understand the neural mechanisms of time perception. He combines psychophysical, behavioral, and computational approaches to address the relationship between the timing of perception and the timing of neural signals. His lab is currently engaged in experiments that explore time warping, manipulations of the perception of causality, and time perception in high-adrenaline situations. He uses this data to explore how neural signals processed by different brain regions come together for a temporally unified picture of the world.
Eagleman, D.M. (2005). News & Views: Distortions of time during rapid eye movements. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 850-851.
Eagleman, D.M. & Sejnowski, T.J. (2000). Motion integration and postdiction in visual awareness. Science, 287, 2036-8.
Eagleman DM & Pariyadath V (2009). Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B (Biological Sciences). In press.
Eagleman DM (2009). Duration and predictability. In Attention and Time. Eds: Coull and Nobre. In press.
Wednesday is Indigo Blue: Discovering the Brain of Synesthesia. Richard E. Cytowic and David M. Eagleman. MIT Press.
Dethronement: The secret hegemony of the Unconscious Brain. David M. Eagleman. Pantheon Books. Under contract for 2010.
John Eccles, PhD
Eccles, J. & Beck, F. (1998). Quantum processes in the brain: A scientific basis for consciousness. Cognitive Studies, 5, 95-109.
Eccles, J. (1982). How the self acts on the brain. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 7, 271-283.
Gerald Edelman, MD, PhD
Gerald Maurice Edelman,MD, PhD, biologist won the Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine in 1972 for his work on the immune system. He is currently the Executive Director of the Neuroscience Institute in La Jolla California. Dr. Edelman expounds a biological theory of consciousness, which he explicitly locates within Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection and Darwinian theories of population dynamics. He rejects dualism and also dismisses newer hypotheses such as the so-called 'computational' model of consciousness, which liken the brain's functions to the operations of a computer.
Edelman argues that the mind and consciousness are wholly material and purely biological phenomena, occurring as highly complex cellular processes within the brain, and that the development of consciousness and intelligence can be satisfactorily explained by Darwinian theory.
Ramesh Srinivasan, D. Patrick Russell, Gerald M. Edelman, and Guilio Tononi. Increased Synchronization of Neuromagnetic Responses during Conscious Perception. The Journal of Neuroscience, 19(13):5435-5448, 1999
Edelman, G.M. (1993) Neural Darwinism: Selection and reentrant signaling in higher brain function. Neuron 10:115-125.
Izhikevich, E.M., J.A. Gally, and G.M. Edelman (2005) Timing dynamics of neuronal groups. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr.:276.14
Owen Flanagan, PhD
Flanagan, O. (2003) "The Neurobiology of Sexual Self-Consciousness: Mind and the Interplay of Brain and Body", in Narrative and Consciousness: Literature, Psychology, and the Brain., edited by Eds. Gary Fireman, Oxford University Press.
Flanagan, O. (2002) Dreaming souls: Sleep, dreams, and the evolution of the conscious mind: Book review. Psychoanalytic Psychology, Vol 19(2), pp. 416-424.
Flanagan Jr.. "“Five Questions”." Mind & Consciousness. Ed. Patrick Grim. 2009.
Flanagan Jr., “The Minds Whereabouts”, The New Scientist (2009).
Flanagan Jr., Consciousness Reconsidered (1992), MIT Press.
Stan Franklin, PhD
Dr. Franklin is interested in Cognitive Modeling using the LIDA Model. Like the Roman god Janus, the LIDA project has two faces, its science face and its engineering face. Its science side fleshes out Baars' global workspace theory of consciousness and cognition, while its engineering side explores architectural designs for software agents that promise more flexible, more human-like intelligence within their domains.
Sun, R., and S. Franklin. (2006). Computational Models of Consciousness: A Taxonomy and some Examples. In Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness, ed. P. D. Zelazo, and M. Moscovitch. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Franklin, S. (2003). IDA: A Conscious Artifact? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 47-66.
Ramamurthy, U., Franklin, S. (2011). Self System in a model of Cognition. Proceedings of Machine Consciousness Symposium at the Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behavior Convention (AISB'11), University of York, UK, 2011, p 51-54
Wallach, W., Allen, C., & Franklin, S. (2011). Consciousness and Ethics: Artificially Conscious Moral Agents. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 3(1), 177-192
Franklin, S., & Baars, B. (2010). Two varieties of Unconscious Processes. In E. Perry, D. Collerton, H. Ashton & F. LeBeau (Eds.), New Horizons in the Neuroscience of Consciousness (pp. 91-102). Amsterdam: John Benjamin
Franklin, S., & Baars, B. J. (2010). Spontaneous remembering is the norm: What integrative models tell us about human consciousness and memory. In John H. Mace (Ed.), The Act of Remembering: Toward an understanding of how we recall the past. Oxford: Blackwell
Franklin, S., D’Mello, S., Baars, B. J., & Ramamurthy, U. (2009). Evolutionary Pressures for Perceptual Stability and Self as Guides to Machine Consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 1(1), 99-110.
Baars, B. J., & Franklin, S. (2009). Consciousness is computational: The LIDA model of Global Workspace Theory. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 1(1), 23-32.
Walter Freeman, MD
Dr. Freeman's research is on analyses electroencephalographic (EEG) and unit activity patterns in cortex that occur during goal-directed behavior. Behaviorally relevant information is expressed in spatial patterns of amplitude modulation of gamma waves that are triggered in the cortex. The patterns recur like cinematographic frames at rates in the theta range.. Behavioral testing has shown that amplitude patterns of gamma activity are invariant with respect to learned odor stimuli, but change with context and reinforcement under conditioning. The same algorithms hold for olfactory, visual, auditory and somatic cortexes. He concludes that the patterns manifest not the features of stimuli, but the meanings of the stimuli for the animals as an expression of their knowledge base. He models the dynamics of the cortex by networks of nonlinear differential equations. The solutions to these equations show landscapes of equilibrium, limit cycle and chaotic attractors. The models conceptualize the most essential functions of sensory cortex: abstraction, generalization, and normalization, and categorization.
Freeman, W.J. (2000) Mesoscopic neurodynamics. From neuron to brain. Journal of Physiology 94, 303-322.
Freeman, W. J. (2001) How Brains Make Up Their Minds. New York: Columbia University Press
Chris Frith, PhD
Dr. Christopher Frith runs a research group which is establishing a new scientific discipline (neural hermeneutics), concerned with the neural basis of social interaction. In particular he is trying to delineate the mechanisms underlying the human ability to share representations of the world. It is this ability that makes communication possible. Results will be relevant for our understanding of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia. One characteristic of the mistaken perceptions (hallucinations) and beliefs (delusions) associated with this disorder is their resistance to change in spite of their incompatibility with the perceptions of others. This indicates a failure in the mechanism by which we align our representations of the world with those of others.
Frith C. (2005) The self in action: Lessons from delusions of control. Consciousness & Cognition. 2005, 14, 752-770.
Frith, C.D., Perry, R. & Lumer, E. (1999). The neural correlates of conscious experience: an experimental framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 105-114.
Uta Frith, PhD
Dr. Uta Frith is a senior scientist in the Cognitive Development Unit of the Medical Research Council in London. Her current research interests include: Autism and Asperger Syndrome, Developmental Dyslexia, Social Cognition, and the impact of neuroscience on teaching and learning
Hamilton, A., Wolpert, D., Frith, U., & Grafton,S. (2006). Where does your own action influence your perception of another person's action in the brain? Neuroimage, 29, 524-535.
Frith,C.D., Frith,U. (2006). How we predict what other people are going to do. Brain Research 1079(1), 36-46
Frith,C.D., Frith,U. (2008). Implicit and explicit processes in social cognition. Neuron 60(3), 503-510.
Frith,C.D., Frith,U. (2008). The self and its reputation in autism. Neuron 57(3), 331-332.
Fred Gage, PhD
Fred H. Gage, a professor in the Laboratory of Genetics at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, concentrates on the adult central nervous system and unexpected plasticity and adaptability to environmental stimulation that remains throughout the life of all mammals. His work may lead to methods of replacing or enhancing brain and spinal cord tissues lost or damaged due to Neurodegenerative disease or trauma.Gage’s lab has shown that, contrary to accepted dogma, human beings are capable of growing new nerve cells throughout life.
Kempermann, G., Wiskott, L., Gage, F. (2004). Functional significance of adult neurogenesis. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14,186-191.
Horner, P., Gage, F. (2000). Regenerating the damaged central nervous system. Nature, 407, 963 - 970.
David Galin, MD
Dr. Galin’s professional background encompasses medicine, neuroscience, and cognitive psychology with a focus on lateral specialization of the cerebral hemispheres and psychiatric implications. In the past he managed an electrophysiology lab. After years of studying disconnections, dissociations, and fragmentations he realized what really mattered was what makes people whole. A person is more than a bunch of parts; the parts are integrated, to constitute an entity. Science has no technical term to denote "wholeness," but Galin conceptualizes this as what is commonly referred to as the "self." Unfortunately, the word "self" as used in psychology is only vaguely defined. Galin conceives of the self as an emergent phenomenon which cannot be grasped or entirely represented only at one level; not just mind or brain or chemistry or culture. By examining what we know already at these levels, he believes we can develop a better idea of the landmarks and boundaries which any full account of self will have to consider.
Galin, D. (2000). Comments on Epstein's Neurocognitive Interpretation of William James's Model of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 9, 576-583.
Galin, D. (1992). Theoretical reflection on awareness, monitoring, and self in relation to anosognosia. Consciousness and Cognition. 1, 152-162.
Vittorio Gallese, MD
Gallese, V. (2006). Intentional attunement: A neurophysiological perspective on social cognition and its disruption in autism. Cognitive Brain Research, 1079: 15-24.
Gallese V., Umiltà M.A. (2006). Cognitive continuity in primate social cognition. Biological Theory, 1: 25-30.
Gallese V. Mirror neurons and the social nature of language: The neural exploitation hypothesis. Social Neuroscience, 2008, 3: 317-333.
Gallese V. Empathy, embodied simulation and the brain. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 2008, 56:769-781.
Michael Gazzaniga, PhD
Dr. Gazzaniga conducts research on how the brain enables mind. Special patient populations are used in a variety of methodologies including visual psychophysics, brain imaging and anatomy.
Colvin, M.K. & Gazzaniga, M.S. (2007). Insights from split-brain patients into the organization of human consciousness. To appear in M. Velmans (Ed.) The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness.
Baird, A.A., Colvin, M.K., VanHorn, J., Inati, S., & Gazzaniga, M.S. (2005) Functional Connectivity: Integrating Behavioral, DTI and fMRI data sets. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(4): 1-8.
Rocco Gennaro, PhD
Gennaro, R (Dec 2011). "The Consciousness Paradox", MIT Press.
Gennaro, R (Feb 2005). "The HOT Theory of Consciousness: Between a Rock and a Hard Place?," Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12 (2), pp. 3-21.
Gennaro, R (2004). Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness.
"Representation of a Representation: Reflections on Las Meninas," Journal of Consciousness Studies, forthcoming (Sept. 2008).
"Are There Pure Conscious Events?" in Rethinking Mysticism, Gordon Haist and Chandana Chakrabarti (ed.), Cambridge Scholars Press, forthcoming 2008.
"Animals, Consciousness, and I-Thoughts," in Philosophy of Animal Minds, Robert Lurz (ed.), Cambridge University Press, forthcoming 2009.
Jay Giedd, MD
Gogtay N, Giedd J, Rapoport JL. Brain development in healthy, hyperactive, and psychotic children. Archives of Neurology. 2002 Aug;59(8):1244-8. Review.
Lenroot RK, Giedd JN. Brain development in children and adolescents: insights from anatomical magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2006;30(6):718-29.
Melvin Goodale, PhD
Goodale, M.. & Milner, D. (2004). Sight Unseen: An Exploration of Conscious and Unconscious Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ganel, T., & Goodale, M. (2003). Visual control of action but not perception requires analytical processing of object shape. Nature, 426, 664-667.
Whitwell RL, Goodale MA. Updating the programming of a precision grip is a function of recent history of available feedback. Exp Brain Res. 2009 Mar 6.
Brown LE, Morrissey BF, Goodale MA. Vision in the palm of your hand. Neuropsychologia. 2008 Nov 28.
Jeffrey Gray, PhD
Dr. Jeffrey Gray was one of the leading, and most highly cited, experimental psychologists in the UK. He had an extraordinarily wide range of professional interests, from the study of simple learning in the leech, to theories of human consciousness, and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of brain damage. After completing his PhD, Gray was appointed to a university lectureship in experimental psychology at Oxford. He remained at Oxford until he replaced Eysenck at the Institute of Psychiatry in 1983. He retired from the chair of psychology in 1999, but continued his experimental research as an emeritus professor, and spent a very happy and productive year at the Centre for Advanced Studies at Stanford University, California.
Gray, J. (2004). Consciousness: Creeping up on the Hard Problem. Oxford University Press.
Gray, J. (2000). The Neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Enquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System (2nd edition) Oxford University of Press.
Susan Greenfield, CBE
As a consequence of working in both biochemical and electrophysiological environments, Greenfield has developed a multidisciplinary approach to exploring novel neuronal mechanisms in the brain that are common to regions affected in both Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The basic theme of her research is to develop strategies to arrest neuronal death in these disorders. She is also co-founder of a university spin-out company specializing in novel approaches to neurodegeneration - Synaptica Ltd . In addition, Professor Greenfield has an interest in the neuroscientific basis of consciousness.
Greenfield, S. & Laureys, S. (2005). A Neuroscientific Approach to Consciousness. Progress in Brain Research, 150, 11-23.
Greenfield. S. (1995). Journey to the Centres of the Mind, WH Freeman.
Anthony Greenwald, PhD
Dr. Greenwald’s research interests include: unconscious cognition, implicit social cognition, sense of self, prejudices and stereotypes, research methodology, and attitude change.
Greenwald, A. G., Draine, S. C., & Abrams, R. L. (1996). Three cognitive markers of unconscious semantic activation. Science, 273, 1699-1702.
Greenwald, A. G. (1992). New Look 3: Reclaiming unconscious cognition. American Psychologist, 47, 766-779.
Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E., & Banaji, M. R. (2009, in press). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
Perkins, A., Forehand, M., Greenwald, A. G., & Maison, D. (2008). The influence of implicit social cognition on consumer behavior: Measuring the non-conscious. In C. Haugtvedt, P. Herr, & F. Kardes (Eds.), Handbook of Consumer Psychology (Pp. 461–475). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Stuart Hameroff, MD
Stuart Hameroff, MD, is the current Director of the Center for Consciousness Studies. His research has suggested that consciousness computational operations may take place in microtubules.. Microtubules organize dynamic activities in animal cells, and are known to process information. Hameroff concluded that classical computation per se is insufficient for consciousness, leading him to adopt a role for a type of quantum computation as suggested by mathematical physicist Sir Roger Penrose. Together, Penrose and Hameroff developed a specific model of quantum computation in neuronal microtubules punctuated by objective reduction (OR) transitions from unconscious quantum information to classical states which influence neuronal functions. Moments of consciousness are proposed to occur in concert with gamma synchrony (i.e. 40 Hz) and be orchestrated by synaptic feedback, hence Orchestrated Objective Reduction. Harshly criticized by functionalists and others, Orch OR remains the most specific (and controversial) theory of consciousness.
Hameroff, S. (in press). The entwined mysteries of anesthesia and consciousness: Is there a common underlying mechanism? Anesthesiology.
Hameroff, S & Penrose, R (1996). Conscious events as orchestrated space-time selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies,3, 36-53.
The Entwined Mysteries of Anesthesia and Consciousness Anesthesiology (2006) 105:400-412
Consciousness, Neurobiology and Quantum Mechanics: The Case for a Connection, In: The Emerging Physics of Consciousness, edited by Jack Tuszynski, Springer-Verlag, In press 2005
John Haynes, PhD
For the past eight years, Dr. Haynes has been exploring the neural correlates of visual consciousness. His previous research experience has included EEG, MEG and fMRI experiments on contrast perception, brightness perception, visual masking, visual awareness, multivariate pattern recognition, and attention using combinations of fMRI, retinotopic mapping, connectivity analyses.
One of his current projects investigates ways to decode and predict a person’s thoughts based on fMRI data. Such research has many potential applications, as for example in detection of deception, in the control of computers and artificial prostheses by brain activity, or even in market research. His other current project investigates the relationship between consciousness, attention and dynamic changes in brain connectivity. His findings suggest that changes in spatial attention lead to highly specific changes in connectivity within early visual areas, and that awareness is reflected in large-scale changes in brain connectivity.
Haynes, J.D., & Rees, G. (2006). Decoding mental states from brain activity in humans. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7, 523-534.
Haynes, J.D., & Rees G. (2005). Predicting the orientation of invisible stimuli from activity in human primary visual cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 686-691.
Haynes, J (2008). Detecting deception from neuroimaging signals - a data-driven perspective. Trends Cogn Sci 12(4):126-7
Soon, CS, Brass, M, Heinze, HJ, and Haynes, JD (2008). Unconscious determinants of free decisions in the human brain. Nat Neurosci.
Donald Hebb, PhD
Hebb, DO & Favreau, O. "The Mechanism of Perception." Radiologic Clinics of North America. 1969 Dec;7(3):393-401
Hebb, DO. "Psychological Learning Theory." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 1976;4(4):309-14.
Joy Hirsh, PhD
Dr. Joy Hirsch currently has several related directions of investigation in her lab. The first is conscious and subconscious neural processes that mediate emotion and cognition in healthy individuals and in patients with psychiatric disorders. She is also studying the neurocircuitry of other complex cognitive processes: decisions; inductive and deductive reasoning; language; truthfulness; and “top-down” influences of expectation, reward, and regulation on early visual and mid-level perceptual and emotional systems. Her lab also operates a pioneering clinical service for mapping individuals for neurosurgical planning and providing assessments of the neurocircuitry that underlie acquired or inherited disabilities. Current projects include integration of EEG and fMRI techniques to localize areas of the cortex involved in seizures, integration of TMS and fMRI to discriminate essential and associative language-sensitive cortical areas, and integration of VEP, EEG and fMRI to inform assessments of visual disease secondary to stroke/ neural degeneration. Projects intended to refine and enhance diagnosis of psychiatric disorders (anxiety, depression, eating disorders, etc.) include the development of specialized paradigms to target both dysfunctional neurocircuitry emotional systems (amygdala and basal ganglia) and control and regulatory systems (cingulate and pre-frontal cortex).
Schiff, N.D., Rodriguez-Moreno. D., Kamal, A., Kim, K., Giacino, J., Plum, F., Hirsch, J. (2005). fMRI Reveals Large Scale Network Activation in Minimally Conscious Patients, Neurology, 64, 514-523.
Etkin, A., Klemenhagen, K., Dudman, J., Rogan, M., Hen, R., Kandel, E., Hirsch, J. (2004). Individual Differences in Trait Anxiety Predict the Response of the Basolateral Amygdala to Unconsciously Processed Threat, Neuron, 44, 1043-1055.
Grinband, J., Wager, T., Lindquist, M., Ferrera, V., Hirsch, J. Detection of time-varying signal in event-related fMRI designs, Neuro Image, 43: 509-520, 2008.
Smart, C., Giacino, J., Cullen, T., Moreno, D.R., Hirsch, J., Schiff, N., Gizzi, M. Locked-In Syndrome complicated by central deafness: neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings, Nature Clinical Practice Neurology. 4(8): 448-453, 2008.
Allan Hobson, MD
J. Allan Hobson, M.D., is the founding director of the Laboratory of Neurophysiology in the Department of Psychiatry at HarvardMedicalSchool. He has devoted his career to the study of sleep and has made original contributions at the levels of basic neurobiology, human sleep measurement and dream psychology. He is best known for his work (with Robert McCarley) leading to the reciprocal-interaction model of sleep-cycle control and the activation-synthesis hypothesis of dreaming.
Hobson, J.A. (2002).The Dream Drugstore: Chemically Altered States of Consciousness.The MIT Press.
Hobson, J.A. (1996).The Chemistry of Conscious States: How the Brain Changes Its Mind, Little Brown & Co.
Douglas Hofstadter, PhD
The intellectual activity carried out by the Fluid Analogies Research Group at IU's Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition has always consisted of two distinct strands. The first involves the attempt to build faithful computer models of some of the most central mechanisms and features of human thinking -- high-level perception, analogical thought, discovery and creativity, and the foundation that effectively underlies all these phenomena -- what we term "fluidity" of human concepts. The second strand of CRCC, by contrast, has little to do with building computer models, but simply involves FARG members engaging in creative intellectual endeavors, either scientific or artistic, such as poetry translation, discovery in mathematics, the study of human error making, the study of humor, the study of sexist language and imagery, the creation of various types of art, and so on. The cognitive modeling at CRCC is based on the thesis that mental activity consists of many tiny independent events and that the seeming unity of a human mind is merely a consequence of the regularity of the statistics of such large collections of events. The models all involve the nondeterministic interaction of many tiny events that take place in simulated parallel. Our most advanced computer models so far have been the Copycat and Metacat programs and the Letter Spirit program which designs the lowercase letters of the roman alphabet in artistically coherent new ways, either starting from seed letters provided by a human, or starting from scratch. There is a natural next stage to our cognitive-modeling activities, which involves the attempt to imbue our most advanced current models -- Metacat and Letter Spirit -- with an increased degree of meta-level awareness; this work will lead to computer models of analogy-making and higher-level perception that are at least somewhat aware of themselves, aware of the humans with whom they are interacting, aware of how humans see them, and so forth.
Hofstadter, D. R., The Mind's I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul, together with Daniel C. Dennett, (Eds.) NY: Basic Books, 1981.
Jakob Hohwy, PhD
Dr. Jakob Howhy's research interests include: philosophy of mind and language, philosophy of science, philosophy of neuroscience and neuropsychiatry.
Hohwy, J., & Frith, C. (2004). Can neuroscience explain consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies, 11, 180-198.
Hohwy, J., & Frith, C. (2004). Studies of the neural correlates of consciousness can do better, but are on the right track. Journal of Consciousness Studies,11, 45–51.
Hohwy, J. (in print). The neural correlates of consciousness: new experimental approaches needed? Consciousness and Cognition.
Hohwy, J. Functional integration and the mind. Synthese 159(3): 315-328, 2007.
Dr. Hurley’s research was primarily involved in the philosophy of psychology and neuroscience. Her work falls under three main headings, and also develops the relationships among these three topics: consciousness, social cognition (imitation, mind-reading), and action (rationality, control, and responsibility).
Hurley, S. (2006). Active Perception and Perceiving Action, in T. Gendler and J. Hawthorne, eds, Perceptual Experience, OUP, 205-259.
Hurley, S. & Noe, A. (2003). Neural Plasticity and Consciousness, Philosophy and Biology 2003, 18:131-168. To be reprinted in A. Pautz and M. Tye, eds, Perception, MIT Press.
Eve Isham, PhD
Isham, E.A., Banks, W.P., Ekstrom, A.D., & Stern, J.A. (in preparation). Winning is earlier, losing is later: Game outcome determines the time of action.
Banks, W.P., & Isham, E.A. (in press) Do we really know what we are doing? Implications of reported time of decision for theories of volition. In W. Sinnott-Armstrong & L. Nadel (Eds.), Conscious Will and Responsibility. New York: Oxford University Press.
Banks, W.P., & Isham, E.A. (2009). We infer rather than perceive the moment we decided to act. Psychological Science, 20, 17-21.
William James, MD
William James was a defender of consciousness as an efficacious force in the biological evolution of the species. As a young medical student in the 1860s, he sided with the Darwinians and began his literary career by writing favorably about the effects of natural selection on mental life. Consciousness, he observed, obeys the laws of variation and selection. Intuitive types, prone to emotional intensity, who produce art and literature, geniuses whose mind is in constant ferment so they can see analogies that others miss, original thinkers whose associations are unfettered, all represent consciousness as a field of awareness that contains the largest number of ideas to choose from. Rationality and the empirical dictates of the sensory world then select out what is adaptive and what is not. In this manner experience as a whole counts as a potent force in the preservation of the race. Later as a young professor of psychology at Harvard, James then anchored the study of consciousness to experimental physiology.
James, W. (1904) Does 'Consciousness' Exist? Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, and Scientific Methods, 1, 477-491.
James, W. (1892) The Stream of Consciousness. Psychology, Chapter XI. (Cleveland & New York, World).
Erwin John, PhD
Dr. John’s main research interest is the Quantitative Analysis of Human Brain Electrical Activity. In his lab, he uses analysis of spontaneous (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs), to develop brain images of working memory (WM) and biological classification of psychiatric patients. He measures WM via the presentation of information items, e.g., faces, letters, and numbers, in a priming set followed by a matching set of items that must be compared with the previous sample. Preliminary results indicate that patients with different neurometric profiles respond to different pharmacotherapeutic treatments. Large-scale international collaborative studies are being organized to collect a patient cohort of sufficient size for prospective confirmation of using predrug neurometric evaluations to predict selective treatment outcomes.
John ER; Prichep LS. (2005). The anesthetic cascade: a theory of how anesthesia suppresses consciousness. Anesthesiology, 102, 447.
John, ER. (2003). A Theory of Consciousness. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12, 24.
John, ER. "Consciousness: Theory and possible applications to personality [Abstract]". International journal of psychophysiology. 2008; 69: 152
Jacob Jolij, PhD
Jacob Jolij studies the role of conscious and unconscious visual representations in visually guided behaviour, using methods such as TMS, EEG and fMRI. He supports the idea that conscious perception is not just an epiphenomenon, but actually a mode of processing that is required for higher cognitive processes, such as inhibitory control and episodic memory.
Lately, he has become more interested in practical applications of consciousness research, as reflected in his recent appointment as assistant professor in Applied Cognitive Psychology and Neuroscience in Groningen. His other interests include computational models of vision, emotion processing, cognitive control, the neural basis of intelligence, and quantum mechanical models of brain processing.
Heinen, K., Jolij, J., & Lamme, V.A.F. (2005). Two temporally distinct periods of activity in V1 are required for figure-ground segregation: a TMS study. Neuroreport, 16, 1483-1487.
Scholte, H., Jolij, J., Fahrenfort, J., & V. Lamme. (2008) Feedforward and recurrent processing in scene segmentation: electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. J. Cogn Neurosci. 20(11): 2097-109
Jolij J, Huisman D, Scholte S, Hamel R, Kemner C, Lamme VA. (2007) Processing speed in recurrent visual networks correlates with general intelligence. Neuroreport, 18(1): 39-43.
J. Scott Jordan, PhD
In light of the recent contention to model the mind as a living system that has to function in the real world, within the confines of real time, researchers, such as Dr. Jordan, are devising experiments that are meant to examine how perception, cognition, and action shape one another in real time as one attempts to complete a task. Dr. Jordan's research efforts are thus focused on conducting experiments that investigate the dynamics of perception, action, and cognition.
Jordan, J. S. (2004). The role of ‘pre-specification' in an embodied cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27(3): 409-409.
Jordan, J. S. (in press). Forward-looking aspects of perception-action coupling as a basis forembodied communication. Discourse Processes.
Kinsbourne, M., & Jordan, J. S. (in press). Embodied Anticipation: A Neurodevelopmental Interpretation. Discourse Processes.
David Kahn, PhD
Kahn, D., Hobson, J.A. (2005). State-dependent thinking: A comparison of waking and dreaming thought. Consciousness and Cognition
Kahn, D. and Hobson, JA (2003). Dreaming and hypnosis as altered states of the brain-mind. Sleep and Hypnosis vol. 5, pp. 58-71.
Kahn, D (2007). Metacognition, Recognition and Reflection while Dreaming. In The New Science of Dreaming. Edited by D. Barrett and P. McNamara. Praeger.
Kahn, D (2006). State dependence of thinking, waking and dreaming. Towards a Science of Consciousness 2006; Tucson 2006 Abstracts.
Marcus Kaiser, PhD
Kaiser M, Görner M, Hilgetag CC (2007). Criticality of spreading dynamics in hierarchical cluster networks without inhibition. New Journal of Physics 9:110
Sporns O, Chialvo DR, Kaiser M, Hilgetag CC (2004) Organization, Development and Function of Complex Brain Networks. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8:418-425
Kaiser M. Feedback loops in complex networks: The topological origin of brain rhythms. (submitted)
Ribeiro P, Simonotto J, Kaiser M, Silva F. Parallel calculation of multi-electrode array correlation networks. (submitted)
Alfred Kaszniak, PhD
Kaszniak, A.W. (2001). Emotion and consciousness: Current research and controversies. In A.W. Kaszniak (Ed.), Emotions, qualia, and consciousness. (pp. 3-21). London: World Scientific.
Pannu, J.K., & Kaszniak, A.W. (2005). Metamemory experiments in neurological populations: A review. Neuropsychology Review, 15, 105-130.
Nielsen, L., & Kaszniak, A.W. (2006). Awareness of subtle emotional feelings: A comparison of long-term meditators and non-meditators. Emotion, 6, 392-405.
Nielsen, L., & Kaszniak, A.W. (2007). Conceptual, theoretical, and methodological issues in inferring subjective emotional experience: Recommendations for researchers. In J.J.B. Allen & J. Coan (Eds.), The Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment(pp. 361-375). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kaszniak, A.W., & Edmonds, E. (2010). Anosognosia and Alzheimer’s disease: Behavioral studies. In G. Prigatano (Ed.), The study of anosognosia (pp., 189-228). New York: Oxford University Press.
Kaszniak, A.W. (in press). Meditation, mindfulness, cognition, and emotion: Implications for community-based older adult programs. In P. Hartman-Stein & A. LaRue (Eds.), Enhancing cognitive fitness in adults: A guide to the use and development of community-based programs. New York: Springer.
John Kihlstrom, PhD
Kihlstrom, J.F., Barnhardt, T.M., & Tataryn, D.J. (1992). The psychological unconscious: Found, lost, and regained. American Psychologist, 47, 788-791.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (1993). The continuum of consciousness. Consciousness & Cognition, 2, 334-354.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (2008). Placebo: Feeling better, getting better, and the problems of mind and body. McGill Medical Journal, 11, 212-214.
Kihlstrom, J.F. (2008). The psychological unconscious. In O. John, R. Robins, & L. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research, 3rd. ed. (pp. 583-602). New York: Guilford.
Marcel Kinsbourne, MD
Dr. Kinsbourne is most interested in brain-behavior relations, consciousness, imitation, psychology of attention, attention deficit disorder, autism. His current research focuses more on consciousness and neural networks.
Kinsbourne, M. (1982). Hemispheric specialization and the growth of human understanding. American Psychologist, 37, p 411-420.
Kinsbourne, M. (1995). Septohippocampal comparator: Consciousness generator or attention feedback loop? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 18, p 687-688.
Helt M, Kelley E, Kinsbourne M, Pandey J, Boorstein H, Herbert M, Fein D. (2008) Can children with autism recover? If so, how? Neuropsychol Rev. 18(4):339-66.
Kinsbourne M. (2006) From unilateral neglect to the brain basis of consciousness. Cortex, 42(6):869-74.
Christof Koch, Ph.
Koch’s research focus is finding out how consciousness arises out of the brain. His long-term goal is to discover and characterize the neuronal correlates of consciousness. He collaborated for 16 years in this exciting endeavor with the late Dr. Francis Crick at the Salk Institute. His lab is also looking into understanding how individual nerve cells can process information and understand the mechanisms underlying computation at the level of synapses, channels and membranes.
Crick, F., and Koch, C. (2003). A framework for consciousness. Nature, 6, 119-126.
Crick, F., and Koch, C. (1990). Towards a neurobiological theory of consciousness. Seminar in the Neuroscience, 2, 263-275.
Wilimzig C, Tsuchiya N, Fahle M, Einhäuser W, Koch C. (2008) Spatial attention increases performance but not subjective confidence in a discrimination task. J Vis. 8(5):7.1-10.
Navalpakkam V, Koch C, Perona P. (2009) Homo economicus in visual search. J Vis. 9(1):31.1-16.
Stephen Kosslyn, PhD
Work in Dr. Kosslyn's laboratory focuses on the neural substrate underlying visual mental imagery and the relation between imagery and perception. Recently he has begun to consider the uses of imagery in cognition more generally, and have examined individual and group differences in imagery ability. They typically use convergent evidence, ranging from behavioral results to neuroimaging data to computational models.
Kosslyn, S.M., Thompson, W. L., and Ganis, G. (2006). The case for mental imagery. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kosslyn, S. M. (2001). Visual consciousness. In P. Grossenbacher (Ed.) Finding consciousness in the brain. Amsterdam: John Benjamines. pp 79-103
Ganis G, Morris RR, Kosslyn SM. (2008) Neural processes underlying self- and other-related lies: An individual difference approach using fMRI. Soc Neurosci. 16: 1-15.
Wright R, Thompson WL, Ganis G, Newcombe NS, Kosslyn SM. (2008) Training generalized spatial skills. Psychon Bull Rev. 15(4):763-71.
SM. Kosslyn (2006) Graph Design for the Eye and Mind. New York, NY, Oxford University Press
Sid Kouider, P.D
Kouider, S., & Dupoux, E. (2001). A Functional Disconnection between Spoken and Visual Word Recognition: Evidence from Unconscious Priming. Cognition, 82, B35-B49.
Dupoux, E., Kouider, S. and Melher, J. (2003). Lexical access without attention? Exploration using dichotic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 29 (1) 172-83.
Kouider, S., de Gardelle, V., Sackur, J., & Dupoux, E. (2010). How Rich is Consciousness? The Partial Awareness Hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 301-207
Gelskov, S.V., & Kouider, S. (2010). Psychophysical thresholds of face visibility during infancy. Cognition, 114(2), 285–292
Kouider, S., Berthet, V., & Faivre, N. (2011). Preference is Biased by Crowded Facial Expressions. Psychological Science, 22, 184-9
Kouider, S., & Dehaene, S. (2007). Levels of processing during non-conscious perception: a critical review. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 362, 857-875
Nakamura, K., Dehaene, S., Jobert, M., Le Bihan, D., & Kouider, S. (2007). Task-specific change of unconscious neural priming in the cerebral language network. PNAS (Proceedings National Academy of Sciences, USA), 104(49):19643-8
de Gardelle, V., & Kouider, S. (in press). How spatial frequencies and visual consciousness interact during face processing. Psychological Science, in press.
Kouider, S., & Dehaene, S. (in press). Subliminal number priming within and across the visual and auditory modalities. Experimental Psychology, in press.
Gabriel Kreiman, PhD
Crick F, Koch C, Kreiman G, Fried I. (2004). Consciousness and neurosurgery. Neurosurgery, 55, 273-282.
Fried I, Mukamel R, Kreiman G. (2011). Internally Generated Preactivation of Single Neurons in Human Medial Frontal Cortex Predicts Volition. Neuron. 69: 548-562
Kreiman G., Koch C. and Fried I. (2000). Imagery neurons in the human brain. Nature, 408, 357-361
Liu H, Agam Y, Madsen JR, Kreiman G. (2009) Timing, timing, timing: fast decoding of object information from intracranial field potentials in human visual cortex. Neuron. 62(2):281-90.
Meyers EM, Freedman DJ, Kreiman G, Miller EK, Poggio T. (2008) Dynamic population coding of category information in inferior temporal and prefrontal cortex. J Neurophysiol. 100(3):1407-19.
Lamme VA (2006). Towards a true neural stance on consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10: 494-501
Jolij J, Lamme VA (2005) Repression of unconscious information by conscious processing: evidence from affective blindsight induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 102: 10747-51.
an Gaal S, Ridderinkhof KR, Fahrenfort JJ, Scholte HS, Lamme VA. (2008) Frontal cortex mediates unconsciously triggered inhibitory control. J Neurosci. 28(32):8053-62.
Scholte, H., Jolij, J., Fahrenfort, J., & V. Lamme. (2008) Feedforward and recurrent processing in scene segmentation: electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. J. Cogn Neurosci. 20(11): 2097-109
Steven Laureys, MD, PhD
Faymonville, M., Boly, M., & Laureys, S. (2006). Functional neuroanatomy of the hypnotic state. Journal of Physiology, Paris, 99, 463-469.
Perrin, F., Schnakers, C., Schabus, M., Degueldre, C., Goldman, S., Bredart, S., Faymonville, M., Lamy, M., Moonen, G., Luxen, A., Maquet, P., & Laureys S. (2006). Brain response to one's own name in vegetative state, minimally conscious state, and locked-in syndrome. Archives of Neurology, 63, 562-569.
Demertzi A, Liew C, Ledoux D, Bruno MA, Sharpe M, Laureys S, Zeman A. (2009) Dualism persists in the science of mind. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1157:1-9. Review.
Schnakers C, Perrin F, Schabus M, Hustinx R, Majerus S, Moonen G, Boly M, Vanhaudenhuyse A, Bruno MA, Laureys S. (2009) Detecting consciousness in a total locked-in syndrome: An active event-related paradigm. Neurocase. 25:1-7.
Joseph LeDoux, PhD
What is an emotion? How do we form memories of emotions? Why are emotions so hard to control? Why do emotional functions become dysfunctional? What aspects of emotions are conscious and unconscious? How is all of this accomplished by the brain at the level of neural systems, cells, synapses, molecules and genes? These are the kinds of questions pursued by Joseph LeDoux and his colleagues.
Repa, J., Muller, J., Apergis, J., Desrochers, T., Zhou, Y., LeDoux, J. (2001). Two different lateral amygdala cell populations contribute to the initiation and storage of memory. Nature Neuroscience, 4, 724-731.
LeDoux, J. (1994). In Search of an Emotional System in the Brain: Leaping from Fear to Emotion and Consciousness. In: The Cognitive Neurosciences (Gazzaniga, ed). Cambridge: MIT Press.
Monfils MH, Cowansage KK, Klann E, Ledoux JE. (2009) Extinction-Reconsolidation Boundaries: Key to Persistent Attenuation of Fear Memories. Science.
Root JC, Tuescher O, Cunningham-Bussel A, Pan H, Epstein J, Altemus M, Cloitre M, Goldstein M, Silverman M, Furman D, Ledoux J, McEwen B, Stern E, Silbersweig D. (2009) Frontolimbic function and cortisol reactivity in response to emotional stimuli. Neuroreport. 20(4):429-34.
Libet, B. Can Conscious Experience Affect Brain Activity? Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol 10(12), Dec 2003. pp. 24-28.
Libet, B. Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, Vol 8(4), Dec 1985.
Rodolfo Llinas, MD, PhD
Llinas, R. (2002). I of the vortex: From neurons to Self. MIT Press.
Llinas, R., Ribary, U., Contreras, D. & Pedroarena, C. (1998). The neuronal basis for consciousness. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. 353, 1841-1849.
Llinas, RR; Roy, S. "The 'prediction imperative' as the basis for self-awareness". Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B. Biological sciences. 2009; 364: 1301
Garcia-Rill, E; Moran, K; Garcia, J; Findley, W M; Walton, K; Strotman, B; Llinas, R R. "Magnetic sources of the M50 response are localized to frontal cortex". Clinical neurophysiology. 2008; 119: 388
Nikos Logothetis, PhD
Dr. Logothetis concentrates on the neural mechanisms of perception and object recognition. He believes that such scientific questions require a multimodal methodological approach which integrates information obtained from single units that derived from mass action potentials as well as from a number of activity-related, surrogate signals such as those monitored during noninvasive neuroimaging experiments. Parallel to ongoing neuroscientific research, he is also working to develop methodologies that will permit the study of neural networks in the context of behavioral paradigms. Smart contrast agents, promise to revolutionize invasive neuroimaging and would represent a quantum leap forward in signal-to-noise ratio, spatial detail and specificity, while affording unprecedented temporal resolution.
Logothetis, N. (1999).Vision: A Window on Consciousness. Scientific American, pp. 69-75.
Logothetis, N.K. & Schall, J.D. (1989). Neuronal Correlates of Subjective Visual Perception. Science, 245, 761-763.
Logothetis NK, Murayama Y, Augath M, Steffen T, Werner J, Oeltermann A. (2009) How not to study spontaneous activity. Neuroimage. 45(4):1080-9.
Petkov CI, Kayser C, Augath M, Logothetis NK. (2009) Optimizing the imaging of the monkey auditory cortex: sparse vs. continuous fMRI. Magn Reson Imaging. [Epub ahead of print]
Philip Low, PhD
Adjunct Professor, Stanford School of Medicine
Dr. Philip Steven Low did his PhD at the Salk Institute, which he joined on the recommendation of the late Francis Crick, Nobel Laureate of DNA fame, after completing his undergraduate degree at University of Chicago where he studied Mathematics, Neuroscience, and Physics and invented novel neurosurgical techniques undermining the role Neuroscientists have attributed to the Neocortex. At Harvard Medical School, Dr. Low showed that compound H, a collagen Type I Inhibitor, could successfully neutralize the growth of fibroid tumors. At the Salk, Dr. Low invented the SPEARS algorithm and authored one of the shortest PhD theses on record: "A New Way To Look At Sleep: Separation & Convergence," a one-page solution to a longstanding problem in brainwave analysis. The experimental and computational methods Dr. Low has developed challenge our understanding of brainwaves during sleeping and awake states in humans and across species. His work has been featured in technical and popular articles including including The MIT Technology Review, The New Scientist, The Economist, The New York Times, etc. and has garnered awards from the National Science Foundation, Merck Co., The Ray Thomas Edwards and Kavli Foundations for Innovative Research, as well as five awards from the Sloan and Swartz Foundations, and an extraordinary ability recognition in the field of brain signal detection from the United States Government.
To bring his innovations to the market, Dr. Low founded NeuroVigil when he was still in graduate school and enlisted four Nobel Laureates and three Fortune 100 company founders. Under Dr. Low’s leadership, NeuroVigil won the 2008 UCSD Entrepreneurship Competition, the annual DFJ Venture Challenge, the 2010 CONNECT Most Innovative New Product Award for iBrain™, a wireless iPod for the brain, used by some of the world’s top pharmaceutical companies with outpatient drug evaluations, and was listed by Fast Company as one of the Top 10 Most Innovative Companies in Health Care, along with GE and the Cleveland Clinic. NeuroVigil successfully went to market in 2009. For his innovative contributions to Biomedicine as well as for his business leadership, Dr. Low has been recognized in 2010 by the MIT Technology Review as one of the 35 top innovators under 35 worldwide. Past recipients include the founders of Linux, Netscape, Paypal, Google and Facebook. On May 1st 2011, NeuroVigil successfully completed one of the largest seed valuation financings to-date. The same year, Dr. Low became the first recipient of the inaugural Jacobs-Rady Pioneer Award for Global Innovation and Entrepreneurship, awarded once every five years, irrespectively of age, gender or geographical location, to an exceptional scientist and chief executive for combined leadership in technology and business.
Dr. Low is the President of the 2010 World Congress on Alzheimer's Disease in Monaco.
The Organization of Sleep States in Zebra Finches"
"A Pattern of Mammalian-like Features in Zebra Finch Sleep"
"An unbiased automated approach to single channel sleep scoring"
"The anti-fibrotic drug halofuginone inhibits proliferation and collagen production by
"Dynamic Spectral Scoring: A New Way to Look at Sleep", P Low, FH Gage, & TJ
"A New Way To Look At Sleep" PS Low, FH Gage & TJ Sejnowski. Society for
"Fine Structure of Human Sleep" PS Low & TJ Sejnowski. Society for Neuroscience
"REM revisited" PS Low & TJ Sejnowski. Society for Neuroscience 2007 Abstracts.
"Mammalian-like Features of Sleep Structure in Zebra Finches" PS Low, SS Shank,
“A New Way To Look At Sleep” PS Low, Ph.D thesis, p 1, UC San Diego, 2007
“REM Revealed” PS Low, SC Barton, R Landreth, TJ Sejnowski. Society for
“A non-Invasive EEG in Animals.” M Bonjean, P Low, L Wylie, B Nielsen, TJ
"The Antifibrotic Drug Halofuginone Inhibits Proliferation and Collagen Production
"Fine Structure of Human Sleep" PS Low & TJ Sejnowski. In Review
William Lycan, PhD
Dr. Lycan's research interests include philosophy of mind; philosophy of language and philosophy of linguistics; epistemology; metaphysics.Lycan, W. (in press). The Plurality of Consciousness, forthcoming in J.M. Larrazabal and L.A. Perez Miranda (eds.), Language, Knowledge, and Representation (Kluwer Academic Publishing).
Lycan, W. (2006). Enactive Intentionality, Psyche, 12, 1-12.
Lycan, W. (1996). Consciousness and Experience. Bradford Books / MIT Press.
Lycan, W. (1987). Consciousness. Bradford Books / MIT Press.
Stephen Macknik, PhD
The aim of Dr. Macknik's research is to define the neural correlates of visibility - what is required for an object to become visible? Dr. Macknik's work has shown that light falling on the retina is not the sole determinate of visibility. For instance, illusions of invisibility have resulted in the discovery that a stimulus can be projected onto the retinas and nevertheless remain partly or wholly invisible. His research has enabled him to conclude that visibility is linked to the spatiotemporal edges of stimuli, and that the neural correlate of spatiotemporal edges is transient bursty activity.Martinez-Conde, S & Macknik, S.L., et.al. (2006) "Microsaccades Counteract Visual Fading." Neuron, 49, pp. 297-305.
Peter U. Tse, Susana Martinez-Conde, Alexander A. Schlegel, Stephen L. Macknik. (2005) "Visibility and visual masking of simple targets are confined to areas in the occipital cortex beyond human V1/V2." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 102(47), pp.17178-17183.
Martinez-Conde S, Macknik SL. (2008) Fixational eye movements across vertebrates: comparative dynamics, physiology, and perception. J Vis. 8(14):28.1-16.
Otero-Millan J, Troncoso XG, Macknik SL, Serrano-Pedraza I, Martinez-Conde S. (2008) Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator. J Vis. 8(14):21.1-18.
Alexander Maier, PhD
Maier A., Logothetis, N.K. & Leopold, D.A. (2007) Context-dependent perceptual modulation of single neurons in primate visual cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104(13):5620-5625
Leopold, D.A., Wilke, M., Maier, A. & Logothetis, N.K. (2002) Stable perception of visually ambiguous patterns. Nature Neuroscience. 5(6): 605-609
Maier, A., Wilke, M., Aura, C., Zhu, C., Ye, F.Q. & Leopold, D.A. (2008) Divergence of fMRI and neural signals in V1 during perceptual suppression in the awake monkey. Nat. Neurosci. 11(10): 1193-1200.
Anthony Marcel, PhD
Marcel, A., Dobel, C. (2005) Structured perceptual input imposes an egocentric frame of reference--pointing, imagery, and spatial self-consciousness. Perception, 34(4).
Marcel, Anthony J. (2003). Introspective Report: Trust, Self-Knowledge and Science. Journal of Consciousness Studies, Vol 10(9-10), Sep-Oct 2003. Special issue: Trusting the Subject (Part 1) pp. 167-186.
Muggleton NG, Postma P, Moutsopoulou K, Nimmo-Smith I, Marcel A, Walsh V.(2006) TMS over right posterior parietal cortex induces neglect in a scene-based frame of reference. Neuropsychologia, 44(7): 1222-1229.
Marcel A, Mackintosh B, Postma P, Cusack R, Vuckovich J, Nimmo-Smith I, Cox SM. (2006) Is susceptibility to perceptual migration and fusion modality-specific or multimodal? Neuropsychologia, 44(5):693-710.
Susana Martinez-Conde, PhD
Dr. Martinez-Conde's lab focuses on understanding the neural bases of our visual experience. How can the electrical activity of a neuron (or a neuronal population) convey the color or brightness of an object? What type of language (neural code) do neurons use to communicate visual information to each other through electrical impulses? In order to address these questions, her laboratory focuses on two main topics: the study of the neural code for visual perception and determining the neural bases of shape and brightness perception. Dr. Martinez-Conde exploits a wide range of techniques that includes functional MRI, electrophysiological recordings from single neurons, psychophysical measurements, and computational models of visual function.Simons D, Lleras A, Martinez-Conde S, Slichter D, Caddigan E, Nevarez G (2006). Induced visual fading of complex images. Journal of Vision, Vol. 6, pp. 1093-1101.
Martinez-Conde S, Macknik SL, Troncoso XG, Dyar TA (2006). Microsaccades counteract visual fading during fixation. Neuron, Vol. 49, pp. 297-305.
Martinez-Conde S, Macknik SL. (2008) Fixational eye movements across vertebrates: comparative dynamics, physiology, and perception. J Vis. 8(14):28.1-16.
Otero-Millan J, Troncoso XG, Macknik SL, Serrano-Pedraza I, Martinez-Conde S. (2008) Saccades and microsaccades during visual fixation, exploration, and search: foundations for a common saccadic generator. J Vis. 8(14):21.1-18.
Colin McGinn, PhD
Dr. McGinn is interested in philosophy of mind (particularly consciousness, intentionality and imagination), ethics, and philosophical logic.
McGinn, C. (1999). The Mysterious Flame: Conscious Minds in a Material World, Basic Books.
McGinn, C. (1991). The Problem of Consciousness, Basil Blackwell.
Phil Merikle, PhD
Dr. Merikle’s research focuses on the relation between conscious and unconscious cognitive processes, with particular emphasis on the issue of how unconscious cognitive processes influence conscious experience. He is also interested in individual differences in conscious and unconscious cognitive processes and the relation between working memory and consciousness. Phil Merikle also studies synaesthesia, a condition in which ordinary stimuli lead to extraordinary conscious experiences.
Merikle, P. M., Smilek, D., & Eastwood, J. D. (2001). Perception without awareness: Perspectives from Cognitive Psychology. Cognition, 79, 115-134.
Merikle, P. M., & Joordens, S. (1997). Measuring unconscious influences. In J. D. Cohen & J. W. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific Approaches to Consciousness (pp.109-123). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Thomas Metzinger, PhD
Metzinger’s research interests include the analytical philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophical aspects of the neuro and cognitive sciences; philosophy of science and philosophical aspects of artificial intelligence and related fields; connections between ethics, philosophy of mind and anthropology; applied ethics of the neuroscience and cognitive sciences, artificial intelligence and computer science. He is the Director of the Theoretical Philosophy Group at the Department of Philosophy and long time contributor in the field of philosophy of mind.
Metzinger, T. (2006). Conscious volition and mental representation: Towards a more fine-grained analysis. In N. Sebanz und W. Prinz (Hrsg.), Disorders of Volition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. S. 19-48.
Metzinger, T. (2003). Being No One. The Self-Model Theory of Subjectivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Metzinger, T. (2009). The Ego Tunnel: The Science of the Mind and the Myth of the Self. Basic Books. http://www.amazon.com/Ego-Tunnel-Science-Mind-Myth/dp/0465045677/ref=pd_bbs_sr_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1236322703&sr=8-1
Metzinger, T. (1995b). Conscious Experience. Thorverton: Imprint Academic & Paderborn: mentis.
David Milner, PhD
Dr. David Milner’s research is primarily concerned with human visual perception, visuomotor control and spatial attention. He is interested in how these processes operate and how they interact. His approach is heavily based on empirical neuropsychological studies, in which systematic investigations of patients with brain damage are set specifically within the context of the wider background of cognitive neuroscience. Neuropsychological research can offer not only insights into the brain processes themselves, but can also enable us to use knowledge of those processes to help us understand the disorders suffered by brain-damaged individuals.
Milner, AD & McIntosh, R. (2004). Reaching between obstacles in spatial neglect and visual extinction. Prog Brain Res 144, 213-226.
Goodale, M. & Milner, A.D. (2004). Sight Unseen: An Exploration of Conscious and Unconscious Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
De-Wit, L., Kentridge, R.W. & Milner, A.D. 2009. Object based attention and visual area LO. Neuropsychologia 47: 1483-1490.
Milner, A. D. & Goodale, M. A. 2006. The Visual Brain in Action, Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press
Goodale, M. A. & Milner, A. D. 2004. Sight Unseen: An Exploration of Conscious and Unconscious Vision. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Marvin Minsky, PhD
Marvin Minsky has made many contributions to AI, cognitive psychology, mathematics, computational linguistics, robotics, and optics. In recent years he has worked chiefly on imparting to machines the human capacity for commonsense reasoning. In 1951 he built the SNARC, the first neural network simulator. His other inventions include mechanical hands and other robotic devices,the confocal scanning microscope, the "Muse" synthesizer for musical variations, and the first LOGO "turtle".
Minsky, M. (1980). "K-lines, a theory of memory," Cognitive Science, 4, pp 117-133.
Minsky, M. (1982). “Why People Think Computers Can't” AI Magazine, vol. 3 no. 4.
Ezequiel Morsella, Ph.D.
Morsella, E. (2005). The function of phenomenal states: Supramodular interaction theory. Psychological Review, 112, 1000-1021.
Morsella, E., Bargh, J. A., & Gollwitzer, P. M. (2009). Oxford handbook of human action. New York: Oxford University Press.
Morsella, E., Gray, J. R., Krieger, S. C., & Bargh, J. A. (2009). The essence of conscious conflict: Subjective effects of sustaining incompatible intentions. Emotion, 9, 717-728.
George Mungun, PhD
Hopfinger, J.B., Buonocore, M.H. & Mangun, G.R. (2000). The neural mechanisms of top-down attentional control. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 284-291.
Fannon SP, Saron CD and Mangun GR (2008) Baseline shifts do not predict attentional modulation of target processing during feature-based visual attention. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 1:7. doi:10.3389/neuro.09/007.2007
Erik Myin, PhD
Dr. Erik Myin is a philosopher of cognitive science oriented philosophy of mind and science. He recently served as the main organizer and chair of the Association for the Scientific Study 8th Annual Meeting.
O'Regan, K., Myin, E. & Noë, A. (2005). "Skill, corporality and alerting capacity in an account of sensory consciousness", Progress in Brain Research, 150, 55-68.
Myin, E. & O'Regan, K. (2002). Perceptual consciousness, access to modality and skill theories, Journal of Consciousness Studies, 9, 27-45.
Myin, Erik & De Nul, Lars (in press) "Filling-in", for Oxford Companion to Consciousness, Bayne, T., Cleeremans, A. & Wilken, P. (eds).
Myin, Erik & Hutto, Dan (2009). "Enacting is enough", Psyche, 15(1), p. 24-30
Thomas Nagel, PhD
Thomas Nagel is Professor of Philosophy and Law at New York University. He is known within the field of philosophy of mind as an advocate of the idea that consciousness and subjective experience cannot be reduced to brain activity. Nagel first argued that the subjective experience of consciousness can never be attained through the objective methods of reductionisticscience. Conscious experience has a subjective character to it, and science, which seeks an objective, general description of nature, cannot capture the subjective character of consciousness. Second, Nagel proposes that because of the subjective character of experience, "we cannot even pose the mind-body problem" in a sensible way and "it seems unlikely that a physical theory of mind can be contemplated."Nagel, T. (1971) Brain Bisection and the Unity of Consciousness, Synthese, pp. 396-413.
Nagel, T. (1994) "Consciousness and Objective Reality", in R. Warner and T. Szubka (eds.), The Mind-Body Problem, Blackwell Press.
Alva Noe, PhD
Noë, A. (2005). What does change blindness teach us about consciousness? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 218 - 219.
Kevin O'Regan J, Myin E, Noë A. (2005) Skill, corporality and alerting capacity in an account of sensory consciousness. Prog Brain Res, 150: 55-68.
Chris Nunn, MD, FRCPsyc
Nunn, C. Awareness: what it is, what it does. Routledge, 1996.
Nunn, C. From Neurons to Notions: brains, mind and meaning. Floris, 2007 (Sep)
'Who Was Mrs Willett? Landscapes and dynamics of the mind.' Exeter. Imprint Academic. 2011
Jaak Panksepp, PhD
Dr. Pankseep's present research is devoted to the analysis of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical mechanisms of emotional behaviors (affective neuroscience), with a focus on understanding how separation responses, social bonding, social play, fear, anticipatory processes, and drug craving are organized in the brain, especially with reference to psychiatric disorders. Past work was in hypothalamic mechanisms of energy balance control supported by a NIMH Award. His general research orientation argues that a detailed understanding of basic emotional systems at the neural level will highlight the basic sources of human values and the nature and genesis of emotional disorders in humans.
Panksepp, J. (2005). Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans. Consciousness & Cognition, 14, 19-69.
Panksepp, J. (1998). The periconscious substrates of consciousness: Affective states and the evolutionary origins of the SELF. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 5, 566-582.
Panksepp J. (2009) Primary process affects and brain oxytocin. Biol Psychiatry, 65(9): 725-727.
David Papineau, PhD
Dr. Papineau works on issues in epistemology, philosophy of science, consciousness, and the philosophy of mind and psychology. He was President of the British Society for the Philosophy of Science from 1993 to 1995, Editor of the British Journal for the Philosophy of Science from 1993 to 1998, and Head of the Philosophy Department at King's from 1995 until 1998. In 1999-2000 he was a Leverhulme Research Fellow.
Papineau, D. (2002). Thinking about Consciousness, Oxford University Press.
Papineau, D. (2000). Introducing Consciousness. Icon Books.
Roger Penrose, PhD
Penrose, R., Hameroff, S. "Quantum Computation In Brain Microtubules? The "Orch OR" model of consciousness." Philosophical Transactions Royal Society London (A) 356:1869-1896 (1998)
Penrose, R. The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and The Laws of Physics, Oxford University Press, 1989
Alfredo Pereira, PhD
Pereira Jr., A., Furlan FA. Meta-Potentiation: Neuro-Astroglial Interactions Supporting Perceptual Consciousness. Nature Precedings: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/760/version/1(2007)
Pereira Jr., A., Johnson G. Toward an Explanation of the Genesis of Ketamine-Induced Perceptual Distortions and Hallucinatory States. Brain and Mind 4(3), 307-326 (2003)
Periera Jr., A., Almada, L. F. 2011.Conceptual Spaces and Consciousness Research. International Journal of Machine Consciousness v.3, 1-17
Pereira Jr, A., Furlan FA, Pereira, M.A.O. 2011. Recent Advances in Brain Physiology and Cognitive Processing. Mens Sana Monographs v.9, 183-192
Pereira Jr, A., Furlan, FA. 2010. Analog Modeling of Human Cognitive Functions with Tripartite Synapses. Studies in Computational Intelligence v.314, 623-635 "http://www.springerlink.com/content/f2mg107121t7754
Pereira Jr., A., Astrocyte-Trapped Calcium Ions: the Hypothesis of a Quantum-Like Conscioous Protectorate Quantum Biosystems 2, 80-92 (2007)
Pereira Jr, A., Furlan, FA. 2010. Astrocytes and human cognition: Modeling information integration and modulation of neuronal activity. Progress in Neurobiology v.92, 405-420
PEREIRA JR, A., Edwards, J., Lehmann, D., Nunn, C., Trehub, A., Velmans, M.. 2010. Understanding Consciousness: An Attempt to Elucidate Contemporary Theories. Journal of Consciousness Studies v.17, 213-219
Pereira Jr., A., Furlan F. Biomolecular Information, Brain Activity and Cognitive Functions Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences 9 , 12-29 (2007)
Pereira Jr., A., Furlan F.A. (2009) On the Role of Synchrony for Neuron-Astrocyte Interactions and Perceptual Conscious Processing. Journal of Biological Physics, DOI 10.1007/s10867-009-9147-yPereira Jr., A., Ricke, H. (2009) What is Consciousness? Towards a Preliminary Definition. Journal of Consciousness Studies 16 (5), Special Issue on Defining Consciousness, p. 28-45.
Michael Posner, PhD
Dr. Michael Posner is interested in the development of neural mechanisms and structures underlying selective attention, as well as brain changes during acquisition of high level skills, specifically the development of executive control in children from age 2 to 5. Imaging data suggest that areas along the frontal midline are critical for regulation of both emotional and cognitive performance. He is undertaking studies of children at these ages to understand this form of self regulation at both an anatomical and a functional level. Training studies will seek to improve this form of self regulation. He also hopes to understand how this form of attention influences the acquisition of high level skills involved in numbers and reading.
Posner, M.I. (2005). Genes and experience shape brain networks of conscious control. In S. Laureys ed. Progress in Brain Research, 150, 173-183.
Posner, M.I. (1994). Attention: the mechanism of consciousness. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 91, 7398-7402.
Tang YY, Posner MI. (2009) Attention training and attention state training. Trends Cogn Sci, 13(5): 222-227.
Fan J, Gu X, Guise KG, Liu X, Fossella J, Wang H, Posner MI. (2009) Testing the behavioral interaction and integration of attentional networks. Brain Cogn, 70(2):209-20.
Steve Potter, PhD
Potter, S. M., Demarse, T. B., Blau, A. W. Wagenaar, D. A. (2003). "Multi-photon time-lapse microscopy and optical recording to study neural processing and plasticity." Microscopy and Microanalysis 9(2): 184-185
Potter, S. M. (2001) "Distributed processing in cultured neuronal networks." Progress In Brain Research 130: 49-62.
Bakkum DJ, Gamblen PM, Ben-Ary G, Chao ZC, Potter SM. (2007) MEART: The Semi-Living Artist. Fron Neurorobotics, 1:5.
Karl Pribram, MD, PhD (Hon)
Pribram's holonomic model, developed in collaboration with quantum physicist David Bohm, theorizes that memory is stored not in cells within the brain, but rather in wave interference patterns. Pribram was drawn to this conclusion by two facts: (1) there are visual cortex response functions that correspond to Gabor functions, which in turn are related to hologram image functions, and (2) drastic lesions can be made in animal brains which reduce, but do not extinguish memories (training), as demonstrated by Karl Lashley in the 1920s. Pribram utilizes Fourier analysis, based on the Fourier Theorem, a form of calculus that transforms complex patterns into component sine waves. Some believe that Pribram's theory also explains how the human brain can store so many memories in such limited space. Pribram believes the brain operates according to the same quantum mathematical principles as a hologram. Bohm has suggested these wave forms may compose hologram-like organizations.
Pribram, K. (2003). Consciousness Reassessed. Mind and Matter, 2, 7–35.
Pribram, K. (1999). Brain and the composition of conscious experience: Of deep and surface structure, frames of reference, episode and executive, models and monitors. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, 19-42.
Michael Proulx, PhD
Proulx, M. J., Stoerig, P., Ludowig, E., & Knoll, I. (2008). Seeing "where" through the ears: Effects of learning-by-doing and long-term sensory deprivation on localization based on image-to-sound substitution. PLoS ONE, 3, e1840.
Proulx, M. J. (2007). Bottom-up guidance in visual search for conjunctions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 33, 48-56.
Proulx, M. J. & Egeth, H. E. (2006). Target-nontarget similarity modulates stimulus driven control in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 524-529
V.S. Ramachandran, MD, PhD
Ramachandran, V.S. (2004). A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness: From Impostor Poodles to Purple Numbers, Pi Press.
Ramachandran, V. S. & Hubbard, E. (2001). Synaesthesia: a window into perception, thought and language. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, 3-34.
Altschuler EL, Ramachandran, VS (2007). A simple method to stand outside oneself. Perception, 36(4), 632-4.
Geraint Rees, PhD
Professor Geraint Rees does work in the laboratory which focuses on the neural mechanisms underlying human consciousness in health and disease. At present his focus is primarily on the neural correlates of particular types of conscious content, aiming to distinguish between conscious and unconscious representations in the human brain. He mainly uses fMRI, in combination with behavioral studies, transcranial magnetic stimulation and EEG/MEG. His previous work has suggested that subjective awareness of objects in the visual environment is associated not just with enhanced activation in visual areas of the occipital lobe, but also areas of parietal and prefrontal cortex often associated with attention. A major focus of his work is therefore in studying interactions between visual cortex and these areas, both in the context of attention, but also with respect to eye movements.
Rees, G, Frith C, & Lavie N. (2004). Neural correlates of attentional capture. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 751-759.
Rees,G., Edwards,S. (2009). Is pain in the brain? Nature Clinical Practice Neurology 5(2), 76-77
Sterzer,P., Jalkanen,L., Rees,G. (2009). Electromagnetic responses to invisible face stimuli during binocular suppression. NeuroImage 46(3), 803-808
Dr. Reingold is very interested in unconscious perception, memory, and learning, the use of eye movements and visual attention, with special emphasis on visual search tasks, the saccadic system with special interest in the saccadic inhibition phenomenon. His use of applied eye movement research entails -- gaze control -- the use of eye movements as a human/computer interface modality, gaze contingent, variable resolution displays, and eye movement measurement techniques and instruments.
Reingold, E. M. (1992). Conscious versus unconscious processes: Are they qualitatively different? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 15, 218-219.
Merikle, P. M., & Reingold, E. M. (1998). On demonstrating unconscious perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 127, 304-310.
Reingold, E. M, (2004). Unconscious perception and the classic dissociation paradigm: A new angle? Perception & Psychophysics, 66, 882-887.
Reingold, E. M, (2004). Unconscious perception: Assumptions and interpretive difficulties. Consciousness and Cognition, 13, 117-122.
Allan Reiss, MD
The Behavioral Neurogenetics Program represents the continuation of 20 years of research by Dr. Reiss into the genetic and neurobiological bases of cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction in individuals with known or presumed homogenous etiologies for neurobehavioral dysfunction. Disorders currently under study by Dr. Reiss include individuals with fragile X syndrome, Turner syndrome, velo-cadio-facial syndrome, Turner syndrome and other sex chromosome aneuploidies, autism, ADHD and dyslexia. Other collaborative research in the Neuroimaging lab focuses on children or adults with normal development, bipolar disorder, major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Menon, V., Boyett-Anderson, J., & Reiss A. (2005). Maturation of medial temporal lobe response and connectivity during memory encoding. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research. 25, 379-85.
Shiffman, S., Ng, Y., Brosnan, T., Eliez, S., Links, J., Kelkar, U., & Reiss A. (2003). Interactive specification of regions of interest on brain surfaces. Neuroimage,20, 1811-1816.
Haas BW, Mills D, Yam A, Hoeft F, Bellugi U, Reiss A (2009) Genetic influences on sociability: heightened amygdala reactivity and event-related responses to positive social stimuli in Williams syndrome. J Neurosci,; 4 (29) : 1132-9
Reiss AL, Hoeft F, Tenforde AS, Chen W, Mobbs D, Mignot EJ (2008) Anomalous hypothalamic responses to humor in cataplexy. PLoS ONE, 5 (3) : e2225
Antti Revonsuo, PhD
Dr. Revonsuo is the principal investigator for the Consciousness Research Group. The CRG approaches the problem of consciousness from a multidisciplinary perspective, combining psychology, philosophy, and cognitive neuroscience. The group’s starting point is to take consciousness as a natural biological phenomenon in the brain, and to carry out both empirical and theoretical explorations into the nature of consciousness. The main lines of research focus on perceptual awareness, altered states of consciousness (dreaming, hypnosis), and the theory and philosophy of consciousness.
Revonsuo A (2000) The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An evolutionary hypothesis of the function of dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6): 877-901.
Revonsuo A (2001) Can functional brain imaging discover consciousness in the brain? Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3): 3-23.
Koivisto M, Revonsuo A.(2008) The role of selective attention in visual awareness of stimulus features: electrophysiological studies. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci, 1189: 115-126.
Koivisto M, Revonsuo A. (2008) Comparison of event-related potentials in attentional blink and repetition blindness. Brain Res, 1189:115-126
David Rose, PhD
My lifelong interest in the neural bases of consciousness prompted me to study many areas in brain research, visual perception, cognition, philosophy of mind and philosophy of science. My empirical research has been mostly into the psychophysics of vision, but I also acquired experience in several areas of neuroscience. This led me to develop a multi-levellist philosophy and has culminated in the publication of an extended review of and textbook on theories of consciousness.
Rose, D. Consciousness: Philosophical, Psychological and Neural Theories. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2006). Japanese translation by N. Osaka, 2008.
Rose, D. and Clarke, T.J. Look who’s talking: visual detection of speech from whole-body biological motion cues during emotive interpersonal conversation. Perception 38, 153-156 (2009).
Bradshaw, M.F., Hibbard, P.B., Parton, A.D., Rose, D. and Langley, K. Surface orientation, modulation frequency and the detection and perception of depth defined by binocular disparity and motion parallax. Vision Research 46, 2636-2644 (2006).
Brown, D., Rose, D. and Lyons, E. Self-generated expressions of residual complaints following brain injury. Neurorehabilitation 24, 175-183 (2009).
David Rosenthal, PhD
Rosenthal, D. (2005). Consciousness and Mind, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Rosenthal, D. (2004). Varieties of Higher-Order Theory, in Higher-Order Theories of Consciousness, ed. Rocco J. Gennaro, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishers, 17-44.
Rosenthal, D. (2008) "Consciousness and Its Function" Neuropsychologia, 46(3): 829-840.
"Phenomenological Overflow and Cognitive Access" (2007) Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 30: 522-523.
Oliver Sacks, MD
Sacks, O. "The Mind's Eye." The New Yorker, July 28, 2003, pp. 48-59.
Sacks, O. "Speed," The New Yorker, August 23, 2004, pp. 60-69.
Sacks, O. The Man who Mistook his Wife for A Hat (1985) New York : Summit Books
Noam Sagiv, PhD
Sagiv, N. & Ward, J. (2006). Cross-modal interactions: Lessons from synesthesia. Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 155, 263-275.
Sagiv, N., Simner, J., Collins, J., Butterworth, B. & Ward J. (2006). What is the relationship between synaesthesia and visuo-spatial number forms? Cognition 101(1), 114-128.
Sagiv, N. & Ward, J. (2006). Cross-modal interactions: Lessons from synesthesia. Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 155, 263-275
Amin, M., Olu-Lafe, O., Claessen, L.E., Sobczak-Edmans, M., Ward, J., Williams, A.L., & Sagiv, N. (2011) Understanding Grapheme Personification: A Social Synaesthesia? Journal of Neuropsychology, 5, xx-xx
Ward J, Sagiv N. (2007) Synaesthesia for finger counting and dice patterns: a case of higher synaesthesia? Neurocase, 13(2): 86-93.
Ward J, Li R, Salih S, Sagiv N. (2007) Varieties of grapheme-colour synaesthesia: a new theory of phenomenological and behavioural differences. Conscious Cogn, 16(4):913-931.
Ayse Saygin, PhD
Saygin, A.P. & Sereno, M.I. (2008) Retinotopy and attention in human occipital, temporal, parietal and frontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 18(9): 2158-68.
Saygin, A.P. (2007) Superior temporal and premotor brain areas necessary for biological motion perception. Brain, 130: 2452-2461.
Saygin, A.P., et al. (2000). Turing Test: 50 years later. Minds and Machines, 10(4): 463-518.
Daniel Schacter, PhD
Dr. Schacter's research has focused on psychological and biological aspects of human memory and amnesia, with a particular emphasis on the distinction between conscious and nonconscious forms of memory and, more recently, on brain mechanisms of memory distortion. He has also studied the effects of aging on memory. His research uses both cognitive testing and brain imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Schacter, D.L. & Slotnick, S.D. (2004). The cognitive neuroscience of memory distortion. Neuron, 44, 149-160.
Maril, A., Simons, J.S., Mitchell, J.P., Schwartz, B.L., & Schacter, D.L. (2003). Feeling-of-knowing in episodic memory: An event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage, 18, 827-836.
Giovanello KS, Kensinger EA, Wong AT, Schacter DL. (2009) Aged-related Neural Changes during Memory Conjunction Errors. J Cogn Neurosci.
Payne JD, Schacter DL, Propper RE, Huang LW, Wamsley EJ, Tucker MA, Walker MP, Stickgold R. (2009) The role of sleep in false memory formation. Neurobiol Learn Mem.
Walter Schneider, PhD
Schneider, W. (1996). Localizing the lexicon for reading aloud: Replication of a PET study using fMRI. NeuroReport 1996; 7(4):961-965.
Schneider, W (1995). Cognitive task design for FMRI International Journal of Imaging Science & Technology, 6, 253-270.
Goldberg RF, Perfetti CA, Fiez JA, Schneider W. (2007) Selective retrieval of abstract semantic knowledge in left prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci, 27(14): 3790-3798.
Aaron Schurger, PhD
Aaron Schurger's research is primarily focused on sensory awareness and its relationship to perception and attention. The brain can process information from the senses to a remarkable level of abstraction, without that information necessarily being accessible to awareness. Dr. Schurger is interested in comparing the neural dynamics that accompany perception-with-awareness with those that accompany perception-without-awareness. In the words of eminent neurologist / neuroscientist Marcel Kinsbourne, "what qualifies a representation for a role in consciousness?" Specific areas of research include the role of neural synchrony in attention and awareness, "blindsight" (the ability of some cortically-blind patients to guess remarkably well regarding visual stimuli that they cannot see), and localized versus distributed correlates of awareness (using fMRI pattern-classification techniques). A forthcoming research project will explore the relationship between neural events and the experience of volition.Schurger A, Cowey A, Tallon-Baudry C (2006). "Induced gamma-band oscillations correlate with awareness in hemianopic patient GY." Neuropsychologia 44, pp. 1796-1803
Schurger, A., A. Cowey, et al. (2008). "Distinct and independent correlates of attention and awareness in a hemianopic patient." Neuropsychologia 46(8): 2189-97.
Schurger, A. and S. Sher (2008). "Awareness, loss-aversion, and post-decision wagering." TICS 12(3): 209-210.
Schurger, A., F. Pereira, et al. (submitted) "Variability of fMRI pattern vector distinguishes conscious from non-conscious responses to visual stimuli.
John Searle, PhD
Dr. Searle is a Slusser Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, and is noted for contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind, artificial intelligence, consciousness, characteristics of socially constructed versus physical realities, and on practical reason. Professor Searle was also the first tenured professor to join the Free Speech Movement at UC Berkeley.
Searle, J. (1989) "Consciousness, Unconsciousness and Intentionality" Philosophical Topics, Vol. 17, No. 1.
Searle, J. (1990) "Is the Brain's Mind a Computer Program?", The Scientific American.
Searle JR. (2007) Dualism revisited. J Physiol Paris, 101(4-6):169-178.
Anil Seth, PhD
Dr. Seth is engaged in the development of quantitative methods for measuring the neural dynamics underlying consciousness, and in locating these measures in a wider theoretical context that accounts for the basic features of phenomenal consciousness in dynamical terms. He is particularly interested in the implications of this research for consciousness in non-human animals and, possibly, in machines.
Seth, A.K., Izhikevich, E.M., Reeke, G.N., & Edelman, G.M. (in press). Theories and measures of consciousness: An extended framework. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.
Seth AK. (2008) Causal networks in simulated neural systems. Cogn Neurodyn, 2(1): 49-64.
Clowes R, Seth AK (2008) Axioms, properties and criteria: roles for synthesis in the science of consciousness. Artif Intell Med, 44(2): 91-104.
Murray Shanahan, PhD
Dr. Shanahan’s research background is in the areas of artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. He also has interests in the philosophy of mind, and in computational neuroscience. His current work centers on global workspace theory, and he is especially interested in building computational models of the global workspace architecture. In addition, he is exploring the "simulation hypothesis", according to which thought is internally simulated interaction with the environment, and he has focused on the idea that the brain realizes this through a form of internally closed sensorimotor loop that emulates the outer sensorimotor loop closed through the environment. His recent work has shown that these two ideas - global workspace theory and the simulation hypothesis can be combined in a computational model and used to control a robot.
Shanahan, M. (2006). A Cognitive Architecture that Combines Internal Simulation with a Global Workspace. Consciousness and Cognition, 15, 433-449.
Shanahan,M. (2005). Global Access, Embodiment, and the Conscious Subject. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12, 46-66.
Shanahan M. (2008) Dynamical complexity in small-world networks of spiking neurons. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 78(4 Pt 1):041924.
Shanahan M. (2008) A spiking neuron model of cortical broadcast and competition. Conscious Cogn, 17(1): 288-303.
Howard Shevrin, PhD
Snodgrass, M., Bernat, E., Shevrin, H. Unconscious perception: A model-based approach to method and evidence. Perception & Psychophysics, Vol 66(5), Jul 2004. pp. 846-867.
Shevrin, H., Ghannam, JH., Libet, B. A neural correlate of consciousness related to repression. Consciousness & Cognition: An International Journal, Vol 11(2), Jun 2002. Special issue: Timing Relations Between Brain and World. pp. 334-341.
Bazan A, Shevrin H, Brakel LA, Snodgrass M. (2007) Motivations and emotions contribute to a-rational unconscious dynamics: evidence and conceptual clarification. Cortex, 43(8): 1104-5.
Brakel LA, Shevrin H. (2005) Anxiety, attributional thinking,and the primary process. Int J Psychoanal, 86(Pt 6): 1679-93.
Wolf Singer, MD
Dr. Singer's laboratory is focused on studying the functional organization of the cerebral cortex and use-dependent synaptic plasticity during development in the adult brain. Since the discovery of synchronous firing in the visual cortex in the mid-eighties he has pursued with great intensity the hypothesis that synchronization of distributed responses serves as a signature of relatedness in distributed parallel processing in the cerebral cortex. Singer examines the possibility that response synchronization serves the dynamic binding of neuronal responses into coherent population codes, thereby creating representations that are complementary to single cell codes.
Singer, W. (2002). Response synchronization, gamma oscillations, and perceptual binding in cat primary visual cortex. In: The Cat Primary Visual Cortex. B. Payne, A. Peters. Academic press, San Diego, 521-559.
Melloni L, Schwiedrzik CM, Rodriguez E, Singer W. (2009) (Micro)Saccades, corollary activity and cortical oscillations. Trend Cogn Sci.
Hodzic A, Kaas A, Muckli L, Stirn A, Singer W. (2009) Distinct cortical networks for the detection and identification of human body. Neuroimage, 45(4): 1264-71.
Aaron Sloman, PhD
The Architectural Basis of Affective States and Processes (with Ron Chrisley and Matthias Scheutz) 2005
Natural and artificial meta-configured altricial information-processing systems (with Jackie Chappell), 2007
Aaron Sloman and Ron Chrisley,
Derek Smith, BSc C.Eng.
Professor Smith works on semantic network software development to simulate human cognition that also serves to highlight the interface of the unconscious and the conscious minds.
Smith, D.J. (2005). How ideas evolve into speech - A computer animation. Paper presented at the 9th Conference of the Consciousness and Experiential Psychology Section of the British Psychology Society, St. Anne's College, Oxford, 16th-18th September 2005.
John Smith, PhD
Dr. Smith’s lab researches two aspects of cognitive psychology. In particular relation to consciousness studies, Dr. Smith is exploring whether nonhuman animals have adaptive uncertainty-monitoring capacities, similar to those humans possess. The problem for this research is that uncertainty paradigms designed for humans do not suit animals, because they rely on verbal self-reports about doubt and confidence. To ameliorate this dilemma, Dr. Smith uses nonverbal experimental paradigms which give animals difficult perceptual and memory problems while also providing them with an additional response that lets them report on or cope with their uncertainty on difficult trials. Dr. Smith has found strong similarities in the way that humans, dolphins, and monkeys use this uncertainty response. In addition to exploring animal consciousness, Dr. J. David Smith is also interested in the human categorization system and in the comparative study of categorization.
Smith, J. D., Beran, M., Redford, J., & Washburn, D. (2006). Dissociating uncertainty states and reinforcement signals in the comparative study of metacognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 135, 282-297.
Smith, J. D., & Washburn, D. A. (2005). Uncertainty monitoring and metacognition by animals. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14, 19-24.
John Smythies, MD, FRCP
John Smythies is Director of the Division of Neurochemistry at the Center for Brain and Cognition at University of California, San Diego; Senior Research Fellow, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London; and Visiting Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School.Smythies, J. (2003). Space, time, and consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 47-56.
Smythies, J. (1997). The functional neuroanatomy of awareness: With a focus on the role of various anatomical systems in the control of intermodal attention. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 6, 455-481
Smythies J. (2005) How the brain decides what we see. J R Soc Med, 98(1): 18-20.
J. Michael Snodgrass, PhD
Dr. John M. Snodgrass is a Senior Research Associate in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Michigan. He is responsible for coordinating a research program on unconscious processes at the university. In addition to being actively involved in research, Dr. Snodgrass also runs a private practice in the community.
Snodgrass, M., & Shevrin, H. (2006). Unconscious inhibition and facilitation at the objective detection threshold: Replicable and qualitatively different unconscious perceptual effects. Cognition, 101, 43-79.
Snodgrass, M., Bernat, E., & Shevrin, H. (2004). Unconscious perception: A model-based approach to method and evidence. Perception & Psychophysics, 66, 846-867.
Roger Sperry, PhD
Roger Sperry helped to uncover that human beings are of two minds. He found that the human brain has specialized functions on the right and left, and that the two sides can operate practically independently. In the early 1960s, Sperry and colleagues conducted extensive experiments on an epileptic patient who had had his corpus collosum, the "bridge" between the left and right hemispheres of the brain, split so that the connection was severed. At first the patient seemed quite normal, but experimentation showed certain activities such as naming objects or putting blocks together in a prescribed way could only be done when using one side of the brain or the other. (Since the right eye connects to the left brain, the left hand to the right brain, and so on throughout the body, the stimulus would be given to the side of the body opposite the brain hemisphere being tested.) These abilities were not absolute, but it seemed that the left hemisphere specialized in language processes and the right is dominant in visual-construction tasks. Sperry's work helped chart a map of the brain and opened whole fields of psychological and philosophical questions. Sperry received the Nobel Prize in 1981.
Sperry, R. W. (1973). Hemisphere deconnection and unity in conscious awareness. American Psychologist, 23, 723-733.
Sperry, R. W. (1969). A modified concept of consciousness. Psychological Review, 76, 532-536.
Maxim Stamenov, PhD
Stamenov, M. (ed.) 1997. Language Structure, Discourse and the Access to Consciousness. (Advances in Consciousness Research, Vol. 12). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Stamenov, M. & V. Gallese (eds.). 2002.
Mirror Neurons and the Evolution of Brain and Language (Advances in Consciousness Research, Vol. 42). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2002.
Popivanov D, Janyan A, Andonova E, Stamenov M. (2003) Common dynamic properties of biosignals during cognition: self-similarity and chaotic dynamics of both response times and EEG during movement imagery. Nonlinear Dyn Psychol Life Sci, 7(4): 315-328.
Stoerig P. (2008) Functional rehabilitation of partial cortical blindness? Restor Neurol Neurosci, 26(4-5) 291-303.
Proulx MJ, Stoerig P, Ludowig E, Knoll I. (2008) Seeing 'where' through the ears: effects of learning-by-doing and long-term sensory deprivation on localization based on image-to-sound substitution. PLoS ONE, 3(3): e1840.
John Taylor, PhD
Director of the Computational Neuroscience Group
Dr. Taylor’s research interests include neural modeling of higher order cognitive processes including consciousness and mulitmodular nets for action, emotion and early processing. He also studies mathematical analyses of single and coupled modules, including recurrence and learning dynamics (including NO). And he is also interested in artificial neural networks in classification and time series analysis with applications in speech recognition, ATR and the financial markets.
Taylor, J.G. (2005). Mind and Consciousness: Towards a Final Answer? Physics of Life Reviews, 2, 1-45.
J. G. Taylor (2006) On the Neurodynamics of the Creation of Consciousness. Cognitive Neurodynamics (in press)
Evan Thompson, PhD
Dr. Thompson's research interests are philosophical theories of consciousness, phenomenology, neurodynamical approaches to consciousness, and embodied cognitive science.
Thompson, E., Zelazo, P., & Moscovich, M. (in press). The Cambridge Handook of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
Diego Cosmelli and Evan Thompson, Embodiment or envatment? Reflections on the bodily basis of consciousness. In John Stewart, Olivier Gapenne, and Ezequiel di Paolo, eds., Enaction: Towards a New Paradigm for Cognitive Science, MIT Press.
Giovanna Colombetti and Evan Thompson, The feeling body: Towards an enactive approach to emotion, in Willis F. Overton, Ulrich M¸ller, and Judith Newman, eds., Body in Mind, Mind in Body: Developmental Perspectives on Embodiment and Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum, 2007.
Giulio Tononi, MD, PhD
Tononi, G. (2005). Consciousness, information integration, and the brain. Progress in Brain Research, 50, 109-26.
Feredoes E, Tononi G, Postle BR. (2009) Prefrontal Control of Familiarity and Recollection in Working Memory. J Cogn Neurosci.
Gilestro GF, Tononi G, Cirelli C. (2009) Widespread changes in synaptic markers as a function of sleep and wakefulness in Drosophila. Science, 324(5923): 109-112.
Arnold Trehub, PhD
I am interested in the theoretical formulation and empirical validation of neuronal brain mechanisms and systems that can explain the workings of all aspects of human cognition and phenomenal content.
Trehub, A. (1991). The Cognitive Brain . MIT Press
Trehub, A. (2007). Space, self, and the theater of consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition, 16, 310-330
Trehub A. (2009) Two arguments for a pre-reflective core self: commentary on Praetorius. Conscious Cogn, 18(1): 339-40.
Peter Tse, PhD
Dr. Peter Ulric Tse investigates the cognitive and neural bases of visual perception and visual consciousness using a variety of methods, including fMRI and psychophysics. His research focuses on the visual perception of 3D form and motion, and how these two types of information interact with each other and with attention before the conscious experience of seeing a moving object. He is also conducting research in search of the neural bases of visibility in the context of visual masking, and the neural basis of perceptual filling-in processes. Because the 2D visual image is inherently ambiguous, the visual system must construct 3D percepts on the basis of assumptions about the image-to-world mapping. One of his goals is to understand the assumptions that underlie the construction of visual percepts, and to understand the neuronal circuits that could realize such constructive processes.
Peter U. Tse, Susana Martinez-Conde, Alexander A. Schlegel, Stephen L. Macknik. (2005) "Visibility and visual masking of simple targets are confined to areas in the occipital cortex beyond human V1/V2." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), 102(47), pp.17178-17183.
Kohler PJ, Caplovitz GP, Tse PU. (2009) The whole moves less than the spin of its parts. Attn Percept Psychophys, 71(4):675-679.
Hsieh PJ, Tse PU. (2009) Microsaccade rate varies with subjective visibility during motion-induced blindness. PLoS ONE, 4(4): e5163.
Endel Tulving, PhD
Dr. Tulving’s research is concerned with fundamental theoretical issues of human memory. Specifically he has been interested in the clarification of episodic memory and sharpening its distinction from all other forms of human memory that is still not sufficiently appreciated by other thinkers and writers.
Tulving, E. (1984). Precise of Elements of Episodic Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7, 223-238.
Ryan JD, Moses SN, Ostreicher ML, Bardouille T, Herdman AT, Riggs L, Tulving E. (2008) Seeing sounds and hearing sights: the influence of prior learning on current perception. J Cogn Neurosci, 20(6): 1030-42.
Rosenbaum RS, Stuss DT, Levine B, Tulving E. (2007) Theory of mind is independent of episodic memory. Science, 318(5854):1257.
Michael Tye, PhD
Tye, M. (2000). Consciousness, Color, and Content (Representation and Mind), Mass: MIT Press.
Consciousness Revisited: Materialism without Phenomenal Concepts. Michael Tye, MIT Press, 2009.
Francisco Varela, PhD
Varela was a proponent of the embodied philosophy which claims that human cognition and consciousness can only be understood in terms of the enactive structures in which they arise, namely the body, and the environment in which the body interacts. He made an impact on the neuroscience profession by introducing concepts such as neurophenomenology, in which observers apply scientifically verifiable methods for examining the nature of their own conscious experience. Varela had previously achieved international recognition in the 1970's as Maturana's colleague and co-creator of the concept of autopoiesis. In autopoietic theory, cognition is a consequence of circularity and complexity in the form of any system whose behavior includes maintenance of that selfsame form. This shifts the focus from discernment of active agencies and replicable actions through which a given process (cognition) is conducted (the viewpoint of cognitive science) to the discernment of those features of an organism's form which determine its engagement with its milieu.
Max Velmans, PhD
Velmans M. (2008) How to separate conceptual issues from empirical ones in the study of consciousness. Prog Brain Res, 168:1-9.
Velmans (2008) Reflexive monism. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15 (2), 5-50.
Velmans, M. (2009) How to define consciousness—And how not to define consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 16(5), 139-156.
Velmans (2009) Understanding Consciousness Edition 2. Routledge/Psychology Press.
Larry Weiskrantz, PhD
Dr. Lawrence Weiskrantz's experimental work with primates and humans coupled with his creative theoretical thinking, carried out over nearly four decades, has profoundly influenced the field of cognitive neuroscience. His studies of brain-injured patients have yielded dramatic results that have materially altered contemporary views of different memory systems. He is one of the few scientists who have conducted landmark research on the neurobiology of both visual perception and memory. His seminal research on the blindsight phenomenon has elucidated the extent of visual abilities that remain after loss of the primary visual projection area of the cortex.
Weiskrantz, L., Kentridge, R., & Heywood, C. (2004). Spatial attention speeds discrimination without awareness in blindsight. Neuropsychologia, 42, 831-835.
Larry Weiskrantz (1997). Consciousness Lost and Found: A Neuropsychological Exploration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Carey DP, Sahraie A, Trevethan CT, Weiskrantz L. (2008) Does localisation blindsight extend to two-dimensional targets? Neuropsychologia, 46(13): 3053-3060.
Weiskrantz L. (2009) Is blindsight just degraded normal vision? Exp Brain Res, 192(3): 413-416.
Patrick Wilken, PhD
of Magdeburg with Jochen Braun. After a period of time employed as an editor for the journals Trends in Cognitive Science, Trends in Neuroscience and Neuron, he is now working for the Berlin School of Mind and Brain at Humboldt University.
Wilken, P., Bayne, T., & Cleeremans, A. (in press). The Oxford Companion to Consciousness, Oxford University Press.
Wilken, P. & Ma, W. (2004). A detection theory account of change detection. Journal of Vision, 4, 1120.
Reddy L, Quiroga RQ, Wilken P, Koch C, Fried I. (2006) A single-neuron correlate of change detection and change blindness in the human medial temporal lobe. Curr Biol, 16(20): 2066-2072.
Adam Zeman, PhD
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Adam Zeman. "Déjà vu." Practical Neurology 2003;3:106-9.
Jon Stone, Lindsay Smith, Kathryn Watt, Lilias Barron, Adam Zeman. "Incoordinated thought and emotion in spinocerebellar ataxia type 8: further evidence for a non-motor role for the cerebellum." Journal of Neurology 2001;248:229-232.
Zeman A. (2008) Consciousness: concepts, neurobiology, terminology of impairments, theoretical models and philosophical background. Handb Clin Neurol, 9