from neuroscience to physics
why are top scientists increasingly interested in researching human consciousness?
For 2000 years, the questions surrounding human consciousness – how the everyday inner workings of our brains give rise to a single cohesive ‘reality’ and a sense of an individual ‘self’ – have been the province of philosophers from Plato to Descartes to Spinoza.
Descartes is remembered for his dualist theory of consciousness in which the physical body is separate from the immaterial mind (or soul), and in large part because of his famous ‘sound-bite’ about human consciousness,” I think, therefore I am.”
However, modern brain imaging seems to indicate that it is Spinoza’s concept of an integrated mind-body that is closer to reality. And psychologist William James’ great work on consciousness in the late 1800s is slowly regaining the pivotal position it deserves in understanding and interpreting human behavior.
Scientists have studied the evolution, the mechanisms and the function of the brain, but have difficulty teasing apart the complex processes that give rise to human consciousness in part because of the difficulty in measuring individual subjective experience.
“Solving the problem of consciousness will need the labors of many scientists, of many kinds, though it is always possible that there will be a few crucial insights and observations. … A few years ago one could not use the word ‘consciousness’ in a paper, for, say, Nature or Science, nor in a grant application. But thankfully, times are changing, and the subject is now ripe for intensive exploration.”
Many scientists believe that we are beginning to learn how a subjective, personal experience can be observed objectively. For the scientist, this makes all the difference between valid research and speculation.
In addition to major scientific publications, such as Science and Nature, the scientific journal Consciousness and Cognition reports scientific research relative to the study of consciousness and cognitive processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences also often features research bearing on the question of consciousness. And the Journal of Consciousness Studies contains a wide variety of reflections by academic scholars and researchers in anatomy, computation, physiology, psychology, artificial intelligence, religion, philosophy and more.